EPA Document Collection

Subject Index

About the EPA document collection held by the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse.

Subject Index: A B C E G H I L M O P R S T U W
Title Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W #

Single page lists: authors subjects titles
Most useful EPA documents


On this page:
Sleep Disturbance
Snowmobiles
Sound Level Meters
Speech
State and Local Issues

Sleep Disturbance

See also Behavioral Effects, Health Effects.

Measures of Noise Level: Their Relative Accuracy in Predicting Objective and Subjective Responses to Noise During Sleep
Jerome S. Lukas
February 1977
PDF

A review of domestic and foreign scientific literature on the effects of noise on human sleep indicates that no sleep disruption can be predicted with good accuracy (correlation coefficients of about 0.80) if the noise descriptor accounts for the frequency-weighted spectrum and the duration of the noise. Units such as EdBA, EPNdB, and SENEL are better predictors than a unit such as maximum dBA. Furthermore, no sleep disruption can be predicted more accurately than arousal or behavioral awakening responses. Some evidence suggests that questionnaires about subjective sleep quality should contain items dealing with the subject's (a) sense of well being on arising, (b) sense of the general quality of his sleep, and (c)estimates on how long it took to fall asleep. Scores on these items can be summed to develop a Composite Sleep Quality measure. Although the amount of evidence is limited, such Composite Sleep Quality is correlated highly (about 0.90) with Composite Noise Rating (CNR) when units of EPNdB or EdBA are used to calculate CNR. Other techniques for calculating the total nighttime noise environment, such as Leq and NNI, have some shortcomings with respect to their ability to predict Composite Sleep Quality.

Foreign Noise Research in Health Effects
Frederick Dick Barber; Carl Modig
May 1981
PDF

Research from 19 countries, including 168 research projects, is described on the following topics: nonauditory physiologic response to noise; noise effects on sleep; industrial and community response to noise; noise-induced hearing loss and hearing conservation; behavioral, social and performance effects on noise; communication interference, noise environment determination and impact characterization, and effects of noise concomitant with vibration. For each project, an abstract, the name and address of the principle investigation, funding and sponsor data if available, and citations for available publications are given. It is concluded that foreign research efforts in this area have remained fairly constant over the last six years.

Federal Noise Research in Health Effects, 1978-80
Carl Modig; John Moore; Jack Shampan
December 1980
PDF

This review of federally sponsored research on the effects of noise on health updates a previous survey, and compares present trends in research in each research category and by federal agency. The following categories of research are covered: Nonauditory Physiologic Responses; Noise Effects on Sleep; Individual and Community Response; Behavioral, Social, and Performance Effects; Communication Interference; Noise Environment Determination and Exposure Characterization; and Human Response to Noise Concomitant with Vibration. Over 250 research projects were sponsored by twenty Departments, Institutes, and Agencies during the 1978-80 period. The following information is provided for each project: title; objective; description; summary of findings; where findings are published; period of performance; name and address of investigator; name, address and telephone number of agency contact person; fiscal year funding data. In comparing present research with previous recommendations made by an Interagency Panel, it was determined that overall expenditures had increased by about 15 percent (compared with the previous period) instead of the recommended 40 percent; and that in general, the Panel's recommendations have not been implemented in the priority areas.

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
PDF

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1.Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social.

Final Report - Assessment of the Applicability of Existing Health and Welfare Criteria to General Aviation Aircraft Noise and to General Aviation Airport Communities
Larry A. Ronk
March 1980
PDF

Existing metrics of environmental noise and its impact on people are reviewed for their suitability in assessing the impact of general aviation (GA) noise on people in airport communities. GA aircraft consist of noncommercial aircraft in propellor-driven, jet, and helicopter categories. In a recent year over 124 million GA operations were performed at approximately 6,000 public-use airports. Available criteria (dose response relationships) are discussed in detail for various health effects of noise, focussing on individual and community annoyance responses, but also including noise-induced hearing loss, communication interference, sleep disturbance, and nonauditory physiological effects. It is concluded that there are only marginal differences in the way several noise metrics predict individual response; therefore, the simplest measurement (A-weighting without a duration correction) is recommended. For community response, no existing annoyance criteria may be entirely appliable to GA airport communities, based on results of several studies. For the time being the criteria developed by Schultz should be used. Information in appendices include a bibliography of health effects of aircraft noise; statistics on the mix of GA aircraft types, distribution of daily GA operations by airport types, and population density around GA airports; and GA flight procedures.

Assessment or the Applicability of Existing Health & Welfare Criteria to General Aviation Aircraft Noise and to General Aviation Airport Communities
Larry A. Ronk
March 1980
PDF

Existing metrics of environmental noise and its impact on people are reviewed for their suitability in assessing the impact of general aviation (GA) noise on people in airport communities. GA aircraft consist of noncommercial aircraft in propellor-driven, jet, and helicopter categories. In a recent year over 124 million GA operations were performed at approximately 6,000 public-use airports. Available criteria (dose response relationships) are discussed in detail for various health effects of noise, focusing on individual and community annoyance responses, but also including noise-induced hearing loss, communication interference, sleep disturbance, and nonauditory physiological effects. It is concluded that there are only marginal differences in the way several noise metrics predict individual response; therefore, the simplest measurement (A-weighting without a duration correction) is recommended. For community response, no existing annoyance criteria may be entirely applicable to GA airport communities, based on results of several studies. For the time being the criteria developed by Schultz should be used. Information in appendices include a bibliography of health effects of aircraft noise; statistics on the mix of GA aircraft types, distribution of daily GA operations by airport types, and populations density around GA airports; and GA flight procedures.

Five-Year Plan for Effects of Noise on Health
December 1981
PDF

This Plan, a revision of an earlier unpublished "EPA Five-Year Noise Effects Research Plan," is intended to serve as a blueprint for future research by other organizations. In addition to introducing categories of health effects of noise and setting priorities for new research, it includes detailed plans for the following categories: nonauditory physiologic effects, particularly, cardiovascular effects; sleep disturbance; individual and community response; noise-induced hearing loss behavioral, social, and performance effects; and communication interference. Each plan proceeds from what is known, the research priorities, and results of recent research to arrive at a detailed plan including Multi-Component Research Initiatives.

Aviation Noise Effects
J. Steven Newman; Kristy R. Beattie
March 1985
PDF

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a "bottom line" conclusion, criterion or perspective for the reader. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific areas addresses in the report include the following: Annoyance, Hearing and Hearing Loss, Noise Metrics, Human Response to Noise, Speech Interference, Sleep Interference, Non-Auditory Health Effects of Noise, Effects of Noise on Wild and Domesticated Animals, Low Frequency Acoustical Energy, Impulsive Noise, Time of Day Weightings, Noise Contours, Land Use Compatibility, Real Estate Values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field. Summaries are provided at the beginning of each section; references are also included.

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
PDF

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1. Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
PDF

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1.Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social.

Federal Noise Research in Noise Effects
February 1978
PDF

The Federal Noise Effects Research Program was documented and reviewed. The program expanded slightly over the last few years, with more aencies participating. The program is reasonably comprehensive and in general coordinated with no unjustified overlap of efforts. Research needs to support and justify regulatory and standards requirements were identified by the Panel as being of the highest priority. Satisfaction of these relatively short term goals with present budget restrictions could jeopardize long-range basic research needs to understand basic effects mechanisms. To satisfy both requirements, the Panel on the average recommends an increase of the overall Federal noise effects research budget of 40%. The Panel recommends several specific research topics for high priority funding. Some of these recommendations are the same ones listed among the 1974 recommendations, and the Panel was concerned about the only partial responsiveness to previous findings. Among the areas requiring additional support are effects of noise on sleep, and community or collective response. The area primarily requiring additional support priority and clarification is the area of non-auditory health effects, since no major well planned program for this area was apparent.

Foreign Noise Research in Noise Effects
Niriam Heilman
January 1978
PDF

This volume has been compiled from the results of a survey on foreign noise effects research from 1975-77. The survey was conducted for the second interagency noise effects research panel. Included in the volume are 211 project descriptions, from twenty-two countries. Projects are reported under the following subject areas: noise-induced hearing loss, non-auditory health effects, psychological and performance effects, noise effects on sleep, communication interference, community or collective response, effects of noise on domestic animals and wildlife, noise environment determination, and noise concomitant with vibration.

Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem
PDF

In 1968, a Conference on Noise as a Public Health Hazard was organized by the American Speech and Hearing Association. At this conference, an attempt was made to bring together a group of speakers who could present summaries of the current state of knowledge ell all aspects of the "noise problem", ranging all tile way from fairly technical treatises to completely non-technical statements of personal opinion. Such a wide-ranging representation was judged to be necessary for the purpose of that conference, which was to present a broad overview of what "noise pollution" was all about, to government personnel and other intelligent laymen who saw that it was probably going to become a hot issue, and give at least a few examples of the scientific evidence underlying arguments about just what effects noise does have. At this time it was realized that as the environmentalist movement gathered momentum, a rapid development of public concern could be expected, and so a permanent Committee of ASHA was established, one of whose charges was to plan another conference when it was judged appropriate. The burgeoning of interest in noise in the intervening 5 years has clearly met, if not surpassed, our expectations at that time. In the developed areas of the world, millions of dollars or their equivalent are being spent on surveys of noise levels and exposures, and increasingly stringent noise regulations are being imposed by all levels of government. And, although the measurement of the effects of noise is nowhere near as simple as the measurement of the noises themselves, many laboratories, mostly with federal support, are engaged in full-time research on the hearing losses, sleep disturbance, speech interference, alteration of physiological state, and annoyance caused by noise. Accordingly, in 1971 we began looking for a sponsor for a second conference-one who would agree, we hoped, to fund attendance by a substantial number of researchers from abroad, so that certain areas of knowledge less intensively studied in the USA could be included in the subject matter. Fortunately, the head of the newly-created Office of Noise Abatement end Control (ONAC) of the Environmental Protection Agency, Dr. Alvin F. Meyer, had need of just such a conference, as a source material for a document summarizing all known criteria that might be used to establish national standards for noise control-that is, provided that the Congress passed the bill, then being duly debated and amended, that would make such a document necessary. Furthermore, certain PL 480 funds (money that must be spent in other countries) were available, which meant that the degree of participation by foreign scientists might be even greater than we had hoped. Not only that, but the particular PL 480 funds in this case were in Jugoslavia, the country that includes one of the garden spots of the world, Dubrovnik. On the assumption that our Congress would pass some form of the bill in question (which it did on October 27, 1972), we forged ahead with plans for our meeting, now upgraded to an International Congress. With the help of Dr. Grujica Zarkovic, the energetic President of tile Jugoslavian Medical Association, and Dr. Mario Levi of the University of Sarajevo, a planning meeting was held to which we invited a representative from most of the countries in which noise research was being done (I say "most" because we could not quite afford to pay for attendees from Japan, Australia, and South Africa because of the distance involved, even though considerable research is being done there). At this meeting the formal agenda was decided on, and the list of invited participants prepared. It was agreed that we would try to limit the Congress content strictly to the effects of noise on health, thereby excluding discussions of engineering aspects of noise reduction and control, descriptions of methods for legal control, and presentation of viewpoints of special-interest groups. There was some debate about how much time to allot to public opinion surveys of annoyance, some of as contending that annoyance, as measured in that manner, is not a health hazard at all in the ordinary sense of the term. However, proponents of the WHO definition of "health", in which any deviation from "optimum well-being" is regarded as undesirable, carried the field, and the final day of the Congress was therefore given over to the sociologists. Despite a series of crises precipitated by governmental red tape originating both in Washington and Belgrade, the Congress was held on May 13-18, 1973 at the Libertas Hotel in Dubrovnik. We had two major disappointments: one was the failure of our Russian invitees to appear due to the fact that our official invitations had not been sent early enough. The other was that the Xerox machine at the Libertas was out of commission. However, the general success of the Congress can be gauged by the fact that the audience was as large on the final afternoon as at any other time. A side benefit of the Congress (or so we hope) was the formation of an international organization consisting of 5 "teams" who will try to accumulate and coordinate knowledge about the effects of noise on (1) temporary and permanent bearing loss; (2) extra auditory function; (3) speech; (4) sleep; and (5) community reaction. The parent group, or "basic" team, will attempt to consolidate this knowledge for use by governmental agencies, and will make plans for the next Congress. Although the organization is now alive, its name is still in question. At the moment it is still the "'International Scientific Noise Teams", but the resulting acronym has a negative connotation that pleases few of us. Other names are being considered. I regret that the length of the invited papers made it impracticable to publish at this time any of the short contributed papers that were presented at the Congress, many of which were excellent, or the often-lively discussions that followed each session. It is hoped that these can be included if another printing of the Proceedings is to be made. An enterprise of this scope cannot be a success without hard work on the part of many people. Without doubt the most effort of all wax put forth by Dr. Levi, who managed all the mechanical details of the Congress, with the help of his and Dr. Zarkovic's staff, particularly, Felih Vesna. Official thanks are extended to our sponsoring organizations: The Jugoslavian Medical Association, The American Speech and Hearing Association, the World Health Organization, and of course most of all the Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

Effects of Noise on People
December 1971
PDF

It has not been demonstrated that many people have had their lives shortened by noise. While undoubtedly there have been accidental injuries and deaths when auditory warning signals were misunderstood or not heard because of the effects of noise, the prevalence of these has not been evaluated. Perhaps the stress of continued exposure to high levels of noise can produce disease or make one more susceptible to disease, but the evidence is not convincing. There are only hints of relations between exposure to noise and the incidence of disease. In other words, the effects of noise on people have not been successfully measured in terms of "excess deaths" or "shortened lifespan" or "days of incapacitating illness." The only well-established effects of noise on health is that of noise-induced hearing loss. There is clear evidence to support the following statements about the effects on people of exposure to noise of sufficient intensity and duration. Noise can permanently damage the inner ear with resulting permanent hearing loss that can range from slight impairment to nearly total deafness. Noise can result in temporary hearing losses and repeated exposures to noise can lead to chronic hearing losses. Noise can interfere with speech communication and the perception of other auditory signals. Noise can disturb sleep. Noise can be a source of annoyance. Noise can interfere with the performance of complicated tasks and, of course, can especially disturb performance when speech communication or response to auditory signal is demanded. Noise and other acoustical considerations can reduce the opportunity for privacy. Noise can adversely influence mood and disturb relaxation. In all of these ways noise can affect the essential nature of human life - its quality. It is for these reasons that the recitation of facts and hypotheses that follow may be of some importance.

The Public Health Effects of Community Noise
Carol Scheibner Pennenga
May 1987
PDF

Noise is "any loud, discordant or disagreeable sound" according to Webster's Dictionary (15, p.1). Another definition would be "unwanted sound". Nearly everyone is exposed to noise at some time in their lives, yet the control of noise is not a top priority for most environmental control programs. Community noise is a very widespread problem that can cause serious public health problems. It is well-established that noise can cause hearing loss in the workplace, but what are the other effects of noise outside the workplace? The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This paper will examine the evidence for the effects of noise on the cardiovascular system, the performance of tasks, the unborn and children, social behavior and mental health, sleep, speech communication and hearing. The majority of the analysis will be spent on the cardiovascular effects because they are both the most controversial and the most potentially health threatening. It is hoped that this examination of the public health effects of community noise will serve as justification for increased priority and effort in noise control at the community, state and federal levels. In addition to noise control programs, this review should also be used to educate the public on the hazards of community noise exposure and how to protect themselves from it.

The Urban Noise Survey
Sanford Fidell
August 1977
PDF

Most of the existing social survey data base on community annoyance has been in character and has been concerned primarily with airport and highway related noise. An essential element in assessing the impact of noise in urban areas away from airports and highways is the evaluation of the attitudes of people concerning the noise in the residential environment. A social survey was conducted to sample opinion over the entire range of noise exposure and population density characteristics of non-rural America.The objective of the Urban Noise Survey was to develop a first order relationship between noise exposure and human response as a function of situational and attitudinal variables associated with the life styles of people in various urban environments. This survey differed from prior surveys in the general area of noise pollution in several important aspects: (1) it was specifically designed to study noise exposure not directly related to airport and highway sources; (2) the social survey was made in conjunction with simultaneous physical measurements of noise exposure at sites with widely different noise environments; (3) it was national rather than local in character and was addressed to a broad rather than narrow range of noise exposures and respondents' life styles. Some of the major conclusions are that: (a) exposure to noise typical of many urban (non-aircraft and non-highway) environments produces widespread annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbance; (b) a strong relationship was demonstrated between exposure level and the proportion of a community highly annoyed by noise; (c) the prevalence of speech interference is an especially good predictor of annoyance; (d) the number of complaints about noise is a poor predictor of the prevalence of annoyance; (e) demographic factors alone are relatively poor predictors of noise annoyance; (f) freedom from noise exposure is a component of a neighborhood satisfaction, and quiet is highly valued; (g) noises associated with automotive sources are the most pervasive sources of annoying noise in urban areas; (h) annoyance associated with intrusive noise sources may be related to measurable noise exposure from such sources, even when their magnitudes are not as great as the level of overall exposure in a community; (i) there is some evidence that human response to noise exposure at Ldn values in excess of 70 dB is more acute than at lower levels.

Snowmobiles

National Surface Transportation Noise Strategy - Medium and Heavy Trucks, Light Vehicles, Motorcycles, and Snowmobiles
October 1978
PDF

This surface transportation substrategy is a follow-up to Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control. The strategy document sets forth the extent of the noise problem in the United States and the general framework for its abatement and control. This substrategy identifies the specific noise problems which stem from surface transportation vehicles (excluding railroads), and suggests the noise abatement controls which should be used to halt this growing problem.

Control of Snowmobile Noise Volume 1 Technology and Cost Information
Bruce A. Davy; Ben H. Sharp
June 1974
PDF

This document contains information useful for the development of noise emission standards for snowmobiles. Topics covered include information on snowmobile construction, noise characteristics of models currently on the market, and noise reduction techniques and costs necessary to achieve specified noise levels,

Sound Level Meters

See Metering and Measurement.

Speech

The Urban Noise Survey
Sanford Fidell
August 1977
PDF

Most of the existing social survey data base on community annoyance has been in character and has been concerned primarily with airport and highway related noise. An essential element in assessing the impact of noise in urban areas away from airports and highways is the evaluation of the attitudes of people concerning the noise in the residential environment. A social survey was conducted to sample opinion over the entire range of noise exposure and population density characteristics of non-rural America.The objective of the Urban Noise Survey was to develop a first order relationship between noise exposure and human response as a function of situational and attitudinal variables associated with the life styles of people in various urban environments. This survey differed from prior surveys in the general area of noise pollution in several important aspects: (1) it was specifically designed to study noise exposure not directly related to airport and highway sources; (2) the social survey was made in conjunction with simultaneous physical measurements of noise exposure at sites with widely different noise environments; (3) it was national rather than local in character and was addressed to a broad rather than narrow range of noise exposures and respondents' life styles. Some of the major conclusions are that: (a) exposure to noise typical of many urban (non-aircraft and non-highway) environments produces widespread annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbance; (b) a strong relationship was demonstrated between exposure level and the proportion of a community highly annoyed by noise; (c) the prevalence of speech interference is an especially good predictor of annoyance; (d) the number of complaints about noise is a poor predictor of the prevalence of annoyance; (e) demographic factors alone are relatively poor predictors of noise annoyance; (f) freedom from noise exposure is a component of a neighborhood satisfaction, and quiet is highly valued; (g) noises associated with automotive sources are the most pervasive sources of annoying noise in urban areas; (h) annoyance associated with intrusive noise sources may be related to measurable noise exposure from such sources, even when their magnitudes are not as great as the level of overall exposure in a community; (i) there is some evidence that human response to noise exposure at Ldn values in excess of 70 dB is more acute than at lower levels.

Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem
PDF

In 1968, a Conference on Noise as a Public Health Hazard was organized by the American Speech and Hearing Association. At this conference, an attempt was made to bring together a group of speakers who could present summaries of the current state of knowledge ell all aspects of the "noise problem", ranging all tile way from fairly technical treatises to completely non-technical statements of personal opinion. Such a wide-ranging representation was judged to be necessary for the purpose of that conference, which was to present a broad overview of what "noise pollution" was all about, to government personnel and other intelligent laymen who saw that it was probably going to become a hot issue, and give at least a few examples of the scientific evidence underlying arguments about just what effects noise does have. At this time it was realized that as the environmentalist movement gathered momentum, a rapid development of public concern could be expected, and so a permanent Committee of ASHA was established, one of whose charges was to plan another conference when it was judged appropriate. The burgeoning of interest in noise in the intervening 5 years has clearly met, if not surpassed, our expectations at that time. In the developed areas of the world, millions of dollars or their equivalent are being spent on surveys of noise levels and exposures, and increasingly stringent noise regulations are being imposed by all levels of government. And, although the measurement of the effects of noise is nowhere near as simple as the measurement of the noises themselves, many laboratories, mostly with federal support, are engaged in full-time research on the hearing losses, sleep disturbance, speech interference, alteration of physiological state, and annoyance caused by noise. Accordingly, in 1971 we began looking for a sponsor for a second conference-one who would agree, we hoped, to fund attendance by a substantial number of researchers from abroad, so that certain areas of knowledge less intensively studied in the USA could be included in the subject matter. Fortunately, the head of the newly-created Office of Noise Abatement end Control (ONAC) of the Environmental Protection Agency, Dr. Alvin F. Meyer, had need of just such a conference, as a source material for a document summarizing all known criteria that might be used to establish national standards for noise control-that is, provided that the Congress passed the bill, then being duly debated and amended, that would make such a document necessary. Furthermore, certain PL 480 funds (money that must be spent in other countries) were available, which meant that the degree of participation by foreign scientists might be even greater than we had hoped. Not only that, but the particular PL 480 funds in this case were in Jugoslavia, the country that includes one of the garden spots of the world, Dubrovnik. On the assumption that our Congress would pass some form of the bill in question (which it did on October 27, 1972), we forged ahead with plans for our meeting, now upgraded to an International Congress. With the help of Dr. Grujica Zarkovic, the energetic President of tile Jugoslavian Medical Association, and Dr. Mario Levi of the University of Sarajevo, a planning meeting was held to which we invited a representative from most of the countries in which noise research was being done (I say "most" because we could not quite afford to pay for attendees from Japan, Australia, and South Africa because of the distance involved, even though considerable research is being done there). At this meeting the formal agenda was decided on, and the list of invited participants prepared. It was agreed that we would try to limit the Congress content strictly to the effects of noise on health, thereby excluding discussions of engineering aspects of noise reduction and control, descriptions of methods for legal control, and presentation of viewpoints of special-interest groups. There was some debate about how much time to allot to public opinion surveys of annoyance, some of as contending that annoyance, as measured in that manner, is not a health hazard at all in the ordinary sense of the term. However, proponents of the WHO definition of "health", in which any deviation from "optimum well-being" is regarded as undesirable, carried the field, and the final day of the Congress was therefore given over to the sociologists. Despite a series of crises precipitated by governmental red tape originating both in Washington and Belgrade, the Congress was held on May 13-18, 1973 at the Libertas Hotel in Dubrovnik. We had two major disappointments: one was the failure of our Russian invitees to appear due to the fact that our official invitations had not been sent early enough. The other was that the Xerox machine at the Libertas was out of commission. However, the general success of the Congress can be gauged by the fact that the audience was as large on the final afternoon as at any other time. A side benefit of the Congress (or so we hope) was the formation of an international organization consisting of 5 "teams" who will try to accumulate and coordinate knowledge about the effects of noise on (1) temporary and permanent bearing loss; (2) extra auditory function; (3) speech; (4) sleep; and (5) community reaction. The parent group, or "basic" team, will attempt to consolidate this knowledge for use by governmental agencies, and will make plans for the next Congress. Although the organization is now alive, its name is still in question. At the moment it is still the "'International Scientific Noise Teams", but the resulting acronym has a negative connotation that pleases few of us. Other names are being considered. I regret that the length of the invited papers made it impracticable to publish at this time any of the short contributed papers that were presented at the Congress, many of which were excellent, or the often-lively discussions that followed each session. It is hoped that these can be included if another printing of the Proceedings is to be made. An enterprise of this scope cannot be a success without hard work on the part of many people. Without doubt the most effort of all wax put forth by Dr. Levi, who managed all the mechanical details of the Congress, with the help of his and Dr. Zarkovic's staff, particularly, Felih Vesna. Official thanks are extended to our sponsoring organizations: The Jugoslavian Medical Association, The American Speech and Hearing Association, the World Health Organization, and of course most of all the Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

Aviation Noise Effects
J. Steven Newman; Kristy R. Beattie
March 1985
PDF

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a "bottom line" conclusion, criterion or perspective for the reader. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific areas addresses in the report include the following: Annoyance, Hearing and Hearing Loss, Noise Metrics, Human Response to Noise, Speech Interference, Sleep Interference, Non-Auditory Health Effects of Noise, Effects of Noise on Wild and Domesticated Animals, Low Frequency Acoustical Energy, Impulsive Noise, Time of Day Weightings, Noise Contours, Land Use Compatibility, Real Estate Values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field. Summaries are provided at the beginning of each section; references are also included.

The Ability of Mildly Hearing-Impaired Individuals to Discriminate Speech in Noise
Alice H. Suter
January 1978
PDF

The purpose of the investigation was to explore the relationship between hearing level at various audiometric frequencies and speech discrimination in different noise backgrounds. The study was designed specifically to test the American Academy of Opthamology and Otolaryngology's (AAOO) selection of a 26-dB average of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, as the point above which hearing handicap occurs. The AAOO method for computing hearing handicap has lately been brought into question for two primary reasons: that the 26-dB fence is too high, and for the exclusion of frequencies above 2000 Hz. The present study, therefore, attempted to see if there were differences among individuals whose hearing was at or better than the low fence, and if so, what factors caused or affected the differences.

Six Indices for Predicting Speech Interference Within Aircraft
Donald C. Gasaway
December 1970
PDF

Acoustic noise within aircraft during flight often causes some degree of interference with aural communication. Several methods have been used ove the years to identify and predict degrees of speech interference. Six of these methods are discussed: four involve octave-band averaging; two use frequency weighting. The assessment is based on application of each of the six indices to noise levels measured within the cockpits of 191 fixed-wing and 58 rotary-wing aircraft, grouped into 11 categories by engine type. Equivalent speech interference levels obtained from the use of each of the six indices are provided for the acoustic spectra developed for the 11 classes of vehicles. The operational considerations which influence speech interference values are described. Noise attenuation provided by headset devices commonly used by Air Force aircrew members is shown for different groups of noise spectra. Criteria are given for evaluating protected and unprotected exposures to noise that compromise communications.

State and Local Issues

See also Enforcement.

1976 Reassessment of Noise Concerns of Other Nations - Volume I - Summary and Selected topics
Carl Modig; Ghalib Khouri; John Stepanchuk; George Cerny
August 1976
PDF

A review of the noise abatement programs of countries around the world (except the U.S.) including laws, regulations, guidelines, criteria, research, governmental organization, plans, etc., with bibliography and contact addresses to facilitate further inquiry. Also includes international organizations involved in noise control. Both environmental and occupational noise are covered. Topics: Community noise, airport, aircraft, surface transportation, construction noise, occupational noise, noise from factories, noise in buildings. A summary finds that compared to a similar 1971 review, the U.S. has "caught up", information has increased geometrically, many nations now compensate citizens for noise from airports or roads, and noise limits in industry are becoming stricter. Vol. II contains country-by-country reviews.

Guidance Manual for Police in State and Local Noise Enforcement Procedures
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The purpose of this manual is to provide law enforcement personnel with the necessary technical skills and procedures to enforce State and Local motor vehicle noise laws. The manual has been written for use by the police officer charged with the enforcement responsibilities, as well as his supervisor.

Analysis of EPA Technical Assistance to State and Local Governments - Volume VI: Summary
October 1980
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This report is the concluding report in a series of companion studies examining technical assistance efforts in five EPA program areas - air, waste-water treatment, drinking water, solid waste, and noise. The project was originally mandated by the Office of Management and Budget, which requested a general examination to improve the Agency's understanding of this important but amorphous subject. The study is under the direction of the Program Evaluation Division of the Office of Planning and Management.

Preliminary Estimates of the Health and Welfare Benefits of State and Local Surface Transportation Noise Control Programs
Michael A. Staiano; Robert A. Samis
November 1979
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The actual reduction in traffic noise exposure level for a given control measure can be conceptually considered a function of: the potential level reduction of the control, its applicability, the extent of its enforcement, and the effectiveness of its enforcement. A survey of the available literature yielded a reasonable amount of information regarding the potential level reductions of control measures, a limited amount of information regarding the observed exposure level reductions of control measures, and virtually no information regarding the applicability of controls, the extent of enforcement, or the effectiveness of enforcement. EPA's National Roadway Traffic Noise Exposure Model (NRTNEM) was used as a means of estimating the benefits of various state and local surface transportation noise control measures for the year 1985. Somewhat coarse simulations of the various controls gave the following results: -Various low speed vehicle noise control measures, applied nationwide, roughly halved of the surface transportation noise impact. -Upper estimates of high speed vehicle noise control measures (snow tire regulations and roadway surface treatment) yielded roughly a 2/5 reduction in impact. -The exclusion of noisy vehicles from residential areas, applied to cities with greater than 50,000 people population, has a potential for the reduction of impact by about 1/4. -Motorcycle enforcement resulting in the partial to total elimination of modified motorcycles has the potential for reducing impact between 1/5 to 1/4. -Reducing local speed limits, in cities of greater than 50,000 people population, was estimated to yield a maximum impact reduction of 1/5. -More stringent speed limit enforcement for highways, on a nationwide basis was estimated to have a maximum benefit of about 1/5 impact reduction. Recommendations for future work include refining NRTNEM itself to more realistically describe vehicle behavior at intersections, refining the simulations themselves to yield more accurate estimates (e.g., considering snow tire controls only for "snow states" and their exclusion only for summer months), and the simulation of simultaneous multiple complementary controls. Finally, any estimates must be considered in the light of reasonable expectations for the applicability, effectiveness and the extent of enforcement of control measures. In the absence of a data base for these parameters, sensitivity tests should be conducted.

Public Education and Information Manual for Noise
June 1980
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This manual is designed to assist with the implementation of a State and/or local noise control public education and information program. The purposes of the program are: a) To increase the awareness and knowledge levels of the general public with respect to the potentially harmful health effects of excessive noise and the effects of noise on their quality of life. b) To foster and promote locally and individually iniciated noise control actions. c) To motivate and generate the support of the general public, public/private agencies and orgaizations, groups and associations for the increased role of State and local governments in noise control and abatement. d) To encourage citizens to participate in the design and implementation of local noise control efforts.

A Critical Review of Time-of-Day Weighting Factors for Cumulative Measures of Community Noise Exposure
S. Fidell; T.J. Schultz
April 1980
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This report was prepared at the request of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control of the Environmental Protection Agency to review the rationale and evidence for time of day weighting factors applied to cumulative measures of community noise exposure such as the Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn). The nature of the controversy over "nighttime penalties" was examined, as was the evidence of differential human sensitivity to noise exposure at different times of day. It was determined that available information does not support rigorous arguments for or against time of day weighting factors, but that ample grounds exist for maintaining time of day weighting factors of some form.

Noise Enforcement Catalogue - A Directory of Persons Willing to Provide Assistance to State and Local Noise Enforcement Programs
January 1979
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Guidelines for Considering Noise in Land Use Planning and Control
June 1980
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In recent years noise has become a recognized factor in the community planning process. Some significant advancements are being made in the reduction of noise at its source; however, noise cannot be eliminated completely. Local, state, and Federal agencies, in recognition of this fact, have developed guidelines and procedures to deal with noise in the community land use planning process. A number of Federal agencies have published policies and/or guidance on noise and land use. These agencies have done this for several different reasons: to carry out public law mandates to protect the public health and welfare and provide for environmental enhancement; to serve as the basis for grant approvals; and to integrate the consideration of noise into the overall comprehensive planning and interagency/intergovernmental coordination process. Because the purposes and uses of these policy and guidance packages are often different, they can appear to be inconsistent and incomparable. This situation may have inhibited state and local planning and decision making with respect to noise and land use and, thus, inhibited consideration of noise in various Federal-grant-in-aid programs. The purpose of this document is to put the various Federal agency policy and guidance packages into perspective. Although this document does not replace the individual Federal agency material, it can serve as the departure point for dealing with each agency's programs and facilitate the consideration of noise in all land use planning and interagency/intergovernmental coordination process. Although several of these Federal programs include noise standards or guidelines as part of their eligibility and performance criteria, the primary responsibility for integrating noise considerations into the planning process rests with local government which generally has exclusive control over actual land development. Noise, like soil conditions, physiographic features, seismic stability, floodplains and other considerations, is a valid land use determinant. Scientific evidence clearly points to noise as not simply a nuisance but an important health and welfare concern. The purpose of considering noise in the land use planning process is not to prevent development but rather to encourage development that is compatible with various noise levels. The objective is to guide noise sensitive land uses away from the noise and encourage non-sensitive land uses where there is noise. Where this is not possible, measures should be included in development projects to reduce the effects of noise. Section 1 presents consolidated Federal agency land use compatibility guidelines. Section 2 overviews techniques by which the guidelines can be implemented. Section 3 briefly overviews the major Federal agency noise control policies and programs. The Appendices contain brief descriptions of environmental noise descriptors and annotated bibliographies of selected Federal documents.

Elements of Successful Community Noise Control Programs
James Adams
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Construction Site Noise Impact
F.M. Kessler; M. Alexander, N. Moiseev
February 1978
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This manual presents a procedure for assessing the noise impact of construction activity. The manual presentd methods for measureing and estimating baseline sound levels, for estimating coustruction site sound levels, and for assessing noise impact and compliance with state and local noise regulations. Also included is a section describing construction equipment and construction process noise methods. A construction site noise model is presented which uses equipment sound levels and usage factors. Worksheets and graphs are provided to assist in the computations. Acoustical computational procedures, as well as equipment sound levels and usage factors, state and local regulations, and illustrative examples, are presented in Appendices.

Community Noise Around General Aviation Airports from the Year 1975 to 2000
William J. Galloway; Ricarda L. Bennett
September 1981
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This study forecasts general aviation airport noise from 1975 to the year 2000. It focuses upon noise due to propeller-driven and business jet airplanes that operate at exclusively general aviation airports throughout the country. The results of the study, expressed in terms of geographical area and population within day-night average sound levels of 55 decibels and higher, are estimated at five-year intervals covering this study period. It is projected that the number of general aviation airplanes in the United States will more than double during these years; however; there will not be a comparable increase in the number of airports. The average sound level for the propeller-driven airplanes is not expected to decrease significantly, but the average sound level associated with the projected business jet fleet will decrease by approximately 16 decibels by the year 2000. As greater numbers of quieter airplanes are introduced into the general aviation fleet, the area (outside of the immediate airport boundaries) exposed to various noise levels is expected to decrease. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of people exposed to a day-night average sound level of 65 decibels from 47,000 people in 1975 to zero population in the year 2000. In contrast, there were 1.2 million people exposed to day-night average sound levels of 55 decibels in 1975 with an expected increase to 1.5 million by the year 2000.

The Public Health Effects of Community Noise
Carol Scheibner Pennenga
May 1987
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Noise is "any loud, discordant or disagreeable sound" according to Webster's Dictionary (15, p.1). Another definition would be "unwanted sound". Nearly everyone is exposed to noise at some time in their lives, yet the control of noise is not a top priority for most environmental control programs. Community noise is a very widespread problem that can cause serious public health problems. It is well-established that noise can cause hearing loss in the workplace, but what are the other effects of noise outside the workplace? The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This paper will examine the evidence for the effects of noise on the cardiovascular system, the performance of tasks, the unborn and children, social behavior and mental health, sleep, speech communication and hearing. The majority of the analysis will be spent on the cardiovascular effects because they are both the most controversial and the most potentially health threatening. It is hoped that this examination of the public health effects of community noise will serve as justification for increased priority and effort in noise control at the community, state and federal levels. In addition to noise control programs, this review should also be used to educate the public on the hazards of community noise exposure and how to protect themselves from it.

Second National Conference on General Aviation Airport Noise and Land Use Planning Summary of Proceedings
Edited by John Schettino; Michael Staiano
April 1982
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This report constitutes the proceedings of the three day Second National Conference on General Aviation Airport Noise and Land Use Planning. The main purpose of the Conference was to continue the dialogue initiated at the First National Conference which took place in October of 1979 in Atlanta, Georgia. The emphasis in this conference was the implementation of solutions at the State and local level. Another objective of the Conference was to develop a document that would be useful to those dealing with general aviation airport noise and land-use planning. This report is intended to serve this purpose. The attendees at this Conference showed a greater awareness of the general aviation airport noise situation than at the first Conference. The airport operators and the planners have become more knowledgable in this area, perhaps due, in part, to AECLUC studies at several general aviation airports.

Manual for Development of Formats for the Presentation of Community Noise Assessment Data
Marilyn Auerbach; Katharina R. Geissler
July 1981
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This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement.This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. The purpose of this manual is to provide a guide to various presentation techniques for all the data generated by the Community Noise Assessment Manual. In this way effective communication of noise data to elected officials, administrators and other community personnel will be facilitated.

Simplified Noise Strategy Manual
Mones E. Hawley
July 1981
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This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This manual's objectives are the same as those described in the "Strategy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program." It provides however a simplified and manual system for planning the noise control strategy for abating a community's noise problems. It assists comunitite in determining, in an objective manner, the efficient allocation of funds for reducing the adverse effects of noise in their community. By following a step-by-step written procedure, a noise planner can be assisted in selecting the most cost-effective noise abatement measures and the amount of money which should be spent on each. The primary criterion for optimization is based on economic and acoustical data gathered in the community.

Potential Noise Reduction From - And The Cost Of - State and Local In-Use Motor Vehicle Exhaust Noise Enforcement Programs
September 1981
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The results of the study and analyses performed indicate that on-the-street enforcement can reduce ambient traffic noise and mitigate the number of potential instrusive events (which lead to complaints) due to vehicles with faulty exhaust systems. Using the State of FLorida enforcement statistics, in the 1976 to 1980 time frame, it is estimated that ambient traffic noise levels have been reduced by 1.7 dB overall and the potential daily intrusive events reduced by over 4,000 occurrences per day for all vehicle types. Of several ways to perform on-the-street enforcement of vehicles with faulty exhausts, the use of the human ear to detect - and human eyesight to confrim, appears to be the most cost effective method. Greater effectiveness of the ear as a detector over the meter has been demonstrated. The cost of enforcement has been shown to vary with community size, ranging from about $.03 per person for communities of 2 million and greater persons, to about $.50 per person for communities of 5 to 25 thousand people. Thus, as a first approximation, a community of 25,000 people could provide on-the-street motor vehicle enforcement for $12,500, whereas a city of 7,000,000 could provide on-the-street enforcement for $200,000. In the case of Florida, a 4,000 per day reduction in potential intrusive events has been achieved with an annual noise enforcement budget of around $200,000.

Computer Programs for the Strategy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program
Patrick K. Glenn
July 1981
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This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This report provides a copy of the computer programs required for running the "Strategy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program." The programs have been written for a UNIVAC 1108. The source language used is FORTRAN IV. A listing of the source programs are included in the report.

Community Noise Assessment Manual - Startegy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program
August 1979
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In response to Congressional mandates, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, has funded the development of a series of manuals, prepared by Wyle Laboratories, to support a Quiet Cities Program. The first of these manuals, entitled "Community Noise Assessment Manual - Social Survey Workbook," provided detailed instructions for conducting an attitudinal survey on noise in a community. The second manual, entitled "Community Noise Assessment Manual - Acoustical Survey," provided detailed practical procedures for conducting a noise measurement survey in a community. This manual, the third in this series, is designed to assist local governments in making logical and cost-effective decisions on the allocation of funds to reduce the adverse effects of noise in their communities. To make maximum use of the material in this document, a community will have utilized the preceding manuals, or their equivalents, to obtain detailed data on the noise environment, and attitudes toward this environment, in their community. However, this manual also stands alone in that it contains many useful guidelines and procedures which a community can utilize to decide on the most efficient allocation of effort and funds directed toward preserving the natural resource - quiet - in their community.

Acoustical Survey/Computerized Data Reduction Procedures
Patrick K. Glenn
July 1981
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This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This report provides the computerized procedures for running an acoustical survey for a community as described in the report: "Acoustical Survey for a Community." This computer program is written in FORTRAN IV and requires approximately 54,000 decimal words of core to operate. The program is designed for a UNIVAC 1108.

Community Noise Fundamentals: A Training Manual
P.L. Michael; W.T. Achor; G.R. Bienvenue; D.M. Dejoy; R.L. Kerlin; A.H. Kohut; J.H. Prout
March 1979
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This manual is designed as a reference to be used by persons involved in community noise programs. Basic information is provided on topics ranging from the basics of sound and hearing to noise measurement and control to rules and regulations. Guidelines are provided for the user to select sections related to particular community noise program tasks.

Community Noise Assessment Manual: Acoustical Survey of a Community
July 1981
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This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assisstance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This Manual presents the technical instructions and guidelines needed by municipal authorities to carry out an initial noise survey. This survey will determine average noise levels ad major noise sources for the community as a whole. It can be used in planning noise reduction measures to benefit the entire community or a substantial portion thereof.

Model Community Noise Control Ordinance
National Institute of Municipal Law Officers; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
September 1975
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This report contains a model ordinance for use by cities and counties in the development of noise control ordinances tailored to local conditions and goals. It is a comprehensive, performance-standard noise ordinance intended to overcome enforcement problems associated with the outmoded nuisance law approach to noise control. This report contains sections on the control of noise from both stationary and mobile sources and includes land use planning provisions. A preamble gives important explanatory information for certain ordinance sections.

Community Noise Assessment Manual - User's Manual for the Social Survey Computer System
July 1981
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The Attitudinal Survay Data Analysis System (ASDAS) is a system of computer programs. It is designed to analyze the raw numbers generated by a sociological survey (the Community Noise Assessment Social Survey) and produce from them a series of concise, meaningful reports. The system is administered by the State and Local Programs Division of the EPA's Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC). In conjunction with the Acoustical Data Reduction and Noise Optimization (NOIZOP) computer programs, ASDAS makes up the data processing and of a larger system of data collection and data processing protocols. This larger system is called LISTEN, an acronym for Local Information System to Evaluate Noise. (Strictly speaking, LISTEN refers only to the data processing end of this system, but the term is often used to refer the system as a whole). LISTEN enables a community to determine the most effective combination of noise control measures to employ, given: the nature and distribution of noise sources within the community; the extent and manner in which noise affects the community's residents; and the budgetary limits imposed on the community's planners. Figure 1-1 shows ASDAS' relationship to the rest of LISTEN.

State and Local Noise Control Activities - 1977-1978
February 1980
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This report presents the third assessment conducted under the policy of periodically determining the status of State and local noise control efforts. A survey, conducted in 1978, was the major component of this assessment. It was intended to cover all States and teritories and 824 communities in the U.S. with populations greater than 25,000. Responses were obtained from 40 States and 562 communities.

Analysis of Alternative Noise Metrics for Airport Noise Assessment
Vijay R. Desai; John E. Wesler; Kevin A. Bradley
February 1991
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The purpose of this report is to provide a quantitative analysis to determine if a single-event noise metric will provide additional insight and sensitivity in the assessment of airport community noise impacts, in comparison with the accepted DNL, and whether such a metric would lead to a different decision regarding the adoption of alternative noise abatement actions. By comparing noise impacts around representative airports, determined through the use of a single-event noise metric based on Sound Exposure Level (SEL), with those determined through the use of DNL, and in turn comparing both with an intuitive judgment of those noise impacts, it was intended to determine if the SEL-based metric provided advantages over DNL, primarily on those communities with DNLs less than 65 dB.

Noise Source Regulation in State and Local Noise Ordinances
March 1973
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As more noise control regulations are enacted at the state and local levels, it has become more difficult to get an accurate overview of those regulations. What is needed is a planning and reference guide fro public administrators and other officials engaged in developing and implementing noise control programs. To aid in satisfying the need, the Office of Noise Abatement and COntrol of the US Environmental Protection Agency has prepared this document. Presented herein is a summary of noise source regulations encompassed in current state laws and local ordinances. Data has been extracted from only those laws and ordinances stipulating specefic decibel levels. For information on the measurement procedures used, refer to the specific law or ordinance. The state ordinances summarized in this report deal primarily with ground transportation systems. The local ordinances, on the other hand, deal with several different aspects of the noise problem, such as restricting noise from transportation systems and from construction equipment and limiting the noise transmitted across property lines. Because of the many variations among local regulations, no attempt has been made to list the specific noise level requirements contained in local zoning laws and building codes. Because new ordinances will continually be enacted, this publication will be updated at appropriate intervals.

State and Local Noise Control Activities 1977-1978
May 1979
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.This report presents the third assessment conducted unde the policy of periodically determining the status of State and local noise control efforts. A survey, conducted in 1978, was the major component of this assessment. It was intended to cover all State and territories and 824 communities in the U.S. with populations greater than 25,000. Responses were obtained from 40 States, and 562 communities.

A Method for Assessing the Effectiveness of Property Line Noise Control Programs
N.P. Miller; C.W. Dietrich
June 1980
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This study describes the basic components found in four active property lijne noise control programs and suggests a method for assessing program effectiveness. It is for use by local jurisdictions interested in developing property linne noise control or assessing current program completeness.

Community Noise
December 1971
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This report addresses the part of the overall noise pollution problem which is associated with outdoor noise in the community. It attempts to provide a quantitative framework for understanding the nature of the outdoor noise environment and the reaction of people and community to its various aspects. The detailed information in this report provides backup to the summary material in the EPA report, as well as additional material relevant to meaningful measures of the noise environment for both future community noise monitoring and research purposes.

A Method for Assessing Automobile Noise
N.P. Miller
June 1980
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This study presents a methods that can be used to examine and quantify each factor contributing to motor vehicle noise produced by automobile accelerating on city/suburban streets. It is based on data collected in six different jurisdictions subject to a range of noise control programs and was developed to assisst State/local jurisdictions to formulate or refine motor vehicle noise control programs.

Noise Source Regulation in State and Local Noise Ordinances
March 1973
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As more noise control regulations are enacted at the state and local levels, it has become more difficult to get an accurate overview of those regulations. What is needed is a planning and reference guide for public administrators and other officials engaged in developing and implementing noise control programs. To aid in satisfying that need, the Office of Noise Abatement and Control of the US Environmental Protection Agency has prepared this document.

Environmental Impact Statement for the Noise Emission Regulations for Motorcycles and Motorcycle Exhaust Systems
December 1980
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This document presents an assessment of the expected benefits and impacts of the final noise emission regulations for motorcycles and motorcycle exhaust systems. The information presented includes a description of the motorcycle and motorcycle exhaust noise problem, the statutory basis for action, a summary of the regulation, State and local programs complementary to Federal noise emission standards for motorcycles and motorcycle exhaust systems, the rationale for regulation, the expected benefits of the regulation, the potential economic effects of the regulation, public comments on the draft environmental impact statement, and conclusions.

Transportation Noise - Federal Control and Abatement Responsibilities May Need to Be Revised
October 1989
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This report discusses transportation noise and the control and abatement activities of the Environmental Protection Agency currently and prior to eliminating its noise program in 1982. It also discusses the transportation noise control and abatement activities of the Department of Transportation and state and local agencies.

Noise and Vibration Characteristics of High Speed Transit Vehicles
June 1971
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The rapidly epanding problems of urban transportation have resulted in intensified activity in the development and construction of new fixed route, high speed rapid transit systems and equipment. The community noise and ground vibration cause by such systems and vehicles is a very important factor influencing public acceptance of these systems. Noise and vibration measurements obtained within modern operational and experimental transit vehicles provide a basis for determining the expected wayside or community airborne noise and ground-borne vibration levels for different types of new transit systems. Through the use of modern design concepts and equipment intended to provide reduced noise and vibration, the wayside noise and vibration caused by rapid transit system vehicles can be made acceptable and the operations can be much quieter than traditionally expected despite the general increase in speed of the newer systems which tends to increase noise and vibration. The purpose of this report is to present a review of the available information on wayside noise and vibration generated by rapid transit vehicles, primarily rail transit vehicles, including projection of the expected noise and vibration levels for highway speed vehicles being considered for future applications.

Technical Analysis - Alignment of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Regulation
June 1982
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Since passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-574, 86 Stat. 1234) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been actively concerned with abatement and control of noise from medium and heavy trucks. Section 18 of the Act directed the Administrator to establish noise emission regulations for motor carriers engaged in interstate commerce. In October of 1974 the Agency promulgated an Interstate Motor Carrier (IMC) noise regulation (40 CFR 202). The regulation prescribed in-use operating noise limits, effective October 15, 1975, for all vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) in excess of 10,000 pounds. On September 8, 1975 the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), which has the Federal enforcement responsibility for the IMC regulation, issued a regulation (49 CFR 325) that prescribed test procedures for determining compliance with the (IMC) noise emission standards. The effective date of the DOT regulation also was October 15, 1975. A number of states and local jurisdictions have adopted and enforce the "in-use" noise standards of the IMC regulation as part of their individual noise control ordinances. Subsequent to the IMC regulation, the Agency promulgated a regulation (40 CFR 205) under the authority of Section 6 of the Act, that established not-to-exceed noise levels for medium and heavy trucks (MHT) manufactured after January 1, 1978. When the Agency promulgated the IMC regulation, it recognized that certain adjustments to the noise limits would be required in the future to ensure that the benefits anticipated from any "new product" regulation would be realized throughout the operating life of new trucks. This document analyzes the potential effects of aligning the levels of the "in-use" IMC regulation with the not-to-exceed levels of the "new-product" MHT regulation. In such an alignment, the IMC noise levels for trucks manufactured on or after January 1, 1978 would be consistent with the noise emission standards of the MHT regulation. Trucks manufactured prior to January 1, 1978 would not be affected. The analysis of the potential effects of aligning the IMC and MHT standards is based on extensive field data on in-use truck noise levels, supplemented by tire noise and vehicle noise degradation data that were not available when the IMC regulation was promulgated in 1974. The analysis assesses the degree of compliance with the IMC standards by interstate motor carrier vehicles. It further evaluates the change in the in-use noise levels of trucks since promulgation of the IMC regulation and the in-use noise levels of trucks manufactured after January 1, 1978. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the potential costs and benefits of an alignment of the IMC regulation with the MHT regulation for post-1977 trucks.

Environmental Impact Statement for the Final Noise Emission Regulation for Buses
July 1980
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This document presents an assessment of the expected benefits and impacts of the Final Noise Emission Regulation for Buses. The information presented includes a description of the bus noise problem, the statutory basis for the action, a summary of the regulation, State and local programs complementary to Federal noise emission standards for buses, the alternatives considered, the expected benefits of the regulation, the potential economic effects of the regulation, public comments on the draft environmental impact statement, and conclusions.

Model Noise Control Ordinance
PDF

The Model Community Noise Control Ordinance (model ordinance) is intended to be a basic tool which communities, both large and small, can use to construct noise control ordinances suited to local needs and conditions. The complete model ordinance, including optional provisions, is perhaps more suitable for larger communities, with populations of about 100,000 or more. Smaller communities and large communities with limited resources may wish to adopt only those provisions which address their most pressing noise problems. It is important that the community ensure that all provisions adopted are realistic in relation to local needs and conditions; that all provisions are consistent with one another, with other local law, and with State and Federal Law; and, finally, that all provisions are clear and otherwise well drafted so that enforcement problems will be minimized.

Noise in America: Extent of the Noise Problem
Miles Simpson; Robert Bruce
September 1981
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The number of Americans exposed to various levels of occupational and environmental noise is estimated. Estimates are made for 11 categories of noise producers (e.g., traffic, aircraft, construction) using the Ldn or Leq(24) metrics. The assumptions in the models used, including , including demographic projections, are made explicit for all estimates. Estimates for combined exposures to traffic and other community noise sources are also made, as well as indoor noise exposures from home equipment like fans and clothes washers. According to the estimates, 1.5 million people are exposed to outdoor noise levels (from a11 sources) of over 75 Ldn, and over 90 million, to levels over 58 Ldn. Over 9 million people are exposed to occupational noise in excess of 80 dB (Leq(24)).

Noise Effects Handbook: A Desk Reference to Health and Welfare Effects of Noise
July 1981
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This desk reference contains thmost up-to-date scientific information on the health effects of noise in a "Question and Answer" format designed for technical ro semi-technical audiences such as State and local Noise Control Officials or the general public.

State and Local Noise Enforcement Legal Memoranda
April 1980
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The legal memoranda included in this document address some of the more prevalent enforcement issues which have arisen in connection with State and local noise control activities. This collection of legal memoranda is organized according to the following two distinct phases of noise control activities: (1) ordinance drafting; (2) prosecution.

Laws and Regulatory Schemes for Noise Abatement
December 1971
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I - Among the more significant findings and conclusions of this Report are the following: - The existing Environmental Noise Regulatory Structure is fragmented in organization and ad hoc in operation. Abatement functions are distributed among Federal, State, and local governmental levels but are largely uncoordinated. - The environmental noise problem context is composed of a wide variety of discrete noise sources and noise environments. Numerous partial efforts have been made to regulate "excessive" or "unnecessary" noise through regulatory schemes directed to abatement at the source, reduction of the effects of noise, and to remedies (by private action) to abate the source or to reduce the effects. - Regulation by the Federal government has been slight. Even with respect to aircraft noise the pace of abatement at the source has been gradual with no short term prospects for substantial relief. - Regulation by the states has for the most part been limited to selected noise sources although some states are now in process of enacting comprehensive noise abatement statutes. - Most noise abatement regulation has taken place at the local level by means of general noise ordinances or ordinances directed to specific noise sources or by the creation of "quiet zones". - Both State and local governmental levels are handicapped in police power regulation of some of the more critical noise sources as a result of preemptive Federal legislation (aircraft noise) or by the threat of impinging upon a strong national interest in maintaining the free flow of interstate commerce. - Very little attention has been given to construction equipment or site noise, or to domestic noise sources. - Enforcement of noise abatement State statutes and municipal noise ordinances has been notoriously spasmodic and uniformly weak; in general, noise control enforcement has been placed on already overburdened State highway patrols or local police officers. - While both the Federal government and State governments have been slow to intervene in the noise regulatory area, certain trends point to a substantially increased level of effort: Federal level: Noise abatement (occupational) of all businesses operating in interstate commerce, Construction site noise abatement under the Construction Safety Act, Highway design to reduce noise effects. State level: Enactment of comprehensive environmental quality statutes, including environmental noise abatement codes, Enactment of specific legislation designed to control the total noise emissions of vehicles and to regulate the noise level operations of vehicles. Local level: Initial efforts by a few cities to enact comprehensive Environmental Noise Codes covering all or most of the serious noise sources and noise environments subject to municipal regulation, Growing sophistication at all governmental levels in noise abatement and control techniques, including the establishment of decibel levels to replace or supplement verbal-subjective standards, Increasing disposition to broaden coverage of noise sources and noise environments by regulatory schemes and to disseminate through labelling or by other means useful information on noise dangers and abatement techniques to the general public. II - Among the more significant continuing problems in the regulation of environmental noise identified by the Report are the following: - Lack of officials and organized public interest in aggressive noise abatement programs. - Conflict of the social interest in noise abatement with other social values such as safety or free expression which are accorded higher priority in the scheme of social interests. - Intensification of the stress between Federal efforts and State/local noise abatement efforts, especially in those regulatory contexts where Federal preemptive legislation is involved. - Continuing difficulty by State or local authorities to regulate noise to the satisfaction of local conditions and needs where such regulation requires control over the noise source or effects of vehicles, equipment, and appliances regularly moving in or operating in interstate commerce. - Continuing difficulty, due to the multiplicity of noise sources and noise environments, of determining what noise sources or effects are to be controlled by what level of government with respect to the setting of standards or to operating procedures, having appropriate regard for the need of uniformity of regulation in some areas and the need for diversity of regulation to suit unique local conditions in others.

Guidelines and Sample Training Workbook for Police Enforcement of Noise Regulations
February 1980
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This report is one of the products of a contract between the EPA's Noise Enforcement Division and Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. One purpose of the contract is to develop materials suitable for use in training State and local police officers to enforce their noise control laws.

Noise Source Regulation in State and Local Noise Ordinances
ONAC
February 1975
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This document has been prepared as a planning and reference guide for public administrators of environmental noise control programs. It presents a summary of noise source regulations encompassed in current state laws and local ordinances. Data have been extracted from only those laws and ordinances stipulating specific decibel levels. For the states, the laws summarized are grouped under the headings: motor vehicles, recreational vehicles, land use, and general. For localities, the headings are: motor vehicles, recreational vehicles, intrusive noise sources, stationary noise sources, construction noise, and miscellaneous noise regulations. Because of the many variations among local jurisdictional regulations, no attempt was made to list the specific noise level requirements for recreational vehicles, construction equipment, or land use.

Community Noise
December 1971
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This report addresses the part of the overall noise pollution problem which is associated with outdoor noise in the community. It attempts to provide a quantitative framework for understanding the nature of the outdoor noise environment and the reaction of people and community to its various aspects. The detailed information in this report provides backup to the summary material in the EPA report, as well as additional material relevant to meaningful measures of the noise environment for both future community noise monitoring and research purposes.

Noise Violations: Guidance Manual for State and Local Prosecutors
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The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to prosecutors who choose to take legal action against violators of State or local noise control regulations; its intent is to assist prosecutors preparing for and conducting a trial - from drafting the complaint to submitting jury instructions.

Noise From Industrial Plants
December 1971
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The objectives of this study included the following: (1) To identify as many sources of noise as possible in five typical indutrial plants. The plants selected for the field survey included the following types: (a) Glass Manufacturing Plant (b) Oil Refinery (c) Power Plant (d) Automobile Assembly Plant (e) Can Manufacturing Plant. (2) To measure the in-plant source noise levels. (3) To measure environmental noise in the communities adjacent to the above industrial plants. (4) To determine the community noise exposure and impact due to industrial plant noise. (5) To identify the human-related problems associated with the noise sources. (6) To identify the contributory reasons for initiating noise abatement programs and current attitudes toward noise legislation. (7) To identify the groups or organizations responsible for initiation of the noise abatement programs. (8) To assess the state-of-the-art for application of noise abatement technology to the noise sources identified above.

Community Noise Counseling Program - Final Report
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The Community Noise Counseling Program sponsored by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) was initiated September 22, 1978, with funding provided by the Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control. The program administration was the responsibility of the Association's Senior Community Service Employment Program, SCSEP, Special Programs Office; and form the start, the program was carried out in conjunction with the older worker employment program as a cooperative effort. The Senior Community Service Employment Program is funded by Title V of the Older Americans Act, administered by the U.S. Department of Labor, and sponsored by the American Association of Retired Persons as grantee. SCSEP eligible enrollees were recruited and assigned to the Community Noise Program by Project Directors in local project offices where needs were identified and site selection was made and approved by EPA Noise Program Officials. Also, in some instances where sites were selected and no local SCSEP project existed, Noise Counselors were recruited as Special Program enrollees, and were paid on a part-time basis from EPA grant funds. Several volunteers were also recruited to act as Noise Counselors. These volunteers, located in four states, were given formal trainging and individual instruction in Community Noise Abatement projects. A Volunteer Noise COunselors handbook, "Sound Advice", was developed, and a volunteer organizers handbook prepared for volunteer leaders, and an 8 minute slide/tape presentation was developed to recruit volunteers. To perpetuate the all volunteer program for Community Noise COunselors, the AARP Program Department has prepared a proposal for funding to support training and volunteer leaders travel necessary to establish the program on a national basis. Supportive noise materials have been developed for use and may be reproduced in quantity for the volunteers use, given funding. Attached as a part of this report are "A Volunteer Noise Counselor's Guide" and "A Volunteer Organizer's Guide", developed by the AARP Program Department for A Volunteer Noise Abatement Program entitled "Sound Advice".

The Status of Noise Control in the United States: State and Local Governments
Clifford R. Bragdon
April 1978
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The Status of Noise Control in the United States: State and Local Governments
April 1978
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The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the status of state and local noise control programs in the United States. To achieve this objective involves examining four elements. 1. Public Awareness 2. Legislation 3. Noise Control Program and 4. Recommendations.

State and Local Guidance Manual for Police: Motor Vehicle Noise Enforcement
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This guidance manual for state and local police officers and law enforcement personnel was prepared for the Office of Noise Abatement and Control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency as part of its mandate under the Noise Control Act (P.L. 92-574, 42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq. Supp. 1978). The purpose of the manual is to provide law enforcement personnel with the necessary technical skills to enforce State and Local Motor Vehicle Noise Laws. The proper enforcement of motor vehicle noise violations requires the noise enforcement officer to develop specific technical skills, both in the use of noise measuring equipment as well as in the application of police practice to noise enforcement officer is utilizing a sound level meter to measure the violation.

State and Municipal Non-Occupational Noise Programs
December 1971
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This document is a report on state and municipal government non-occupational noise abatement and control programs prepared from information obtained in response to a questionnaire disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The questionnaire and a letter of inquiry were part of a study to establish the national need for legislation and research concerning noise abatement and control. They were forwarded by the EPA Administrator to the governors of each state (including Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands) and the mayors of the 153 cities having populations, as of 1970, of 100,000 or more. The questionnaire requested information concerning the level and scope of existing and planned noise abatement and control programs. It furthermore solicited opinions on what additional support programs could be developed by the Federal government. Described herein are the replies of 114 mayors and of 41 governors.

Community Noise Counseling Program - Handbook for Community Noise Counselors
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The following handbook has been written for you, the community noise counselor. It contains both information and ideas which will help you in your efforts to improve the quality of life in your neighborhood. This handbook is a resource document as well as a workbook. You will read about the reasons for a noise counseling program, the role of the noise counselor, and some of the techniques a noise counselor can use in reducing noise in a community. You will also find some forms in the appendix which have been designed to help you set your objectives and to assist you in locating the key people in your community who can help you reach your objectives. In addition to this handbook, special training is available. This training can play an important part in your role as a community noise counselor. However, you are not expected to become a technical expert in the properties of sound or in the intricate details of sound measurement. Your role is that of a catalyst, providing information, ideas, and direction to individuals, citizen groups, and perhaps public officials who can take action to reduce their own noise exposure as well as the exposure of others as a result of your efforts.

An Assessment of Noise Concern in Other Nations - Volume II
December 1971
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This contractor report is intended to supplement the Report to Congress by the Office of Noise Abatement and Control. It presents an overview of noise abatement and control problems and activities of foreign nations. It is presented on the premises that the issue of noise and its effects on man has attracted worldwide attention; that many nations and their local governments have taken concrete steps and are supporting extensive research toward noise abatement; and finally, that such information is useful for U.S. federal, state and local governments in their formulation of policy and action plans.

A Practical Application of Community Noise Analyses; --Case Study of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
R.J. Goff; M.P. Valoski; R.E. D'Amato
February 1977
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This report is designed to document the technical results of a 2-1/2 year Noise Control Program in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. While the program consisted of many facets--public education, complaint analysis, community noise survey, publicity, legislation drafting, and public hearings--only the survey and legislation are detailed. First, metrics are selected for describing a community noise environment. Specific parameters influencing community noise are evaluated and used to develop a survey methodology. Survey data are presented and analyzed according to such parameters as time of day, noise source, land use, and municipality. Finally, the results are incorporated into community noise legislation.

An Assessment of Noise Concern in Other Nations - Volume I
December 1971
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This contractor report is intended to supplement the Report to Congress by the Office of Noise Abatement and Control. It presents an overview of noise abatement and control problems and activities of foreign nations. It is presented on the premises that the issue of noise and its effects on man has attracted worldwide attention; that many nations and their local governments have taken concrete steps and are supporting extensive research toward noise abatement; and finally, that such information is useful for U.S. federal, state and local governments in their formulation of policy and action plans.

Background Document to Proposed Interstate Motor Carrier Regulations
November 1973
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Through the Noise Control Act of 1972 (86 Stat. 1234), Congress established a national policy "to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare." In pursuit of that policy, Congress stated, in Section 2 of that Act, "that, while primary responsibility for control of noise rests with state and local governments, Federal action is essential to deal with major noise sources in commerce, control of which requires national uniformity of treatment." As a part of that essential Federal action, Section 18 of that Act (86 Stat. 1249) directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish proposed noise emission regulations for motor carriers engaged in interstate commerce. Motor carriers subject to such regulations include common carriers by motor vehicle, contract carriers by motor vehicle and private carriers of property by motor vehicle as these terms are defined by paragraphs (14), (15), and (17) of the Interstate Commerce Act (49 U.S.C. 303 (a).

Model Noise Control Provisions for Building Codes and an Imlementation Manual
A.S. Harris; D.S. Keast; N.P. Miller; T.J. Schultz
August 1981
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A model municipal noise control code for buildings has been developed. Also included is an implementation manual for this code. The provisions of the code were developed with three objectives in mind. First, they attempt to minimize the adverse health and welfare effects of intruding noise without requiring the construction of economically unreasonable buildings. Proposed standards for the outdoor reduction of noise levels are achievable with existing materials and construction techniques. Secondly, enforcement for the review of plans and for the acceptance of completed buildings are described. Thirdly, this material should help jurisdictions develop a process of administrationand enforcement that is compatible with existing building code procedures. The model provisions of the proposed building code contain performance standards. These standards are administered and enforced by review of plans and inspections during and after construction of buildings.

State and Local Noise Control Activities 1977-1978
April 1979
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Appendix D - State and Local Noise Control Officials
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Updating a Dosage-Effect Relationship for the Prevalence of Annoyance Due to General Transportation Noise
Sanford Fidell; David S. Barber; Theodore J. Schultz
September 1990
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More than a decade has passed since a relationship between community noise exposure and the prevalence of annoyance was synthesized by Schultz {T.J. Schultz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64. 377-405 (1978)} from the findings of a dozen social surveys. This quantitative dosage-effect relationship has been adopted as a standard means for predicting noise-induced annoyance in environmental assessment documents. The present effort updates the 1978 relationship with findings of social surveys conducted since its publication. Although the number of data points from which a new relationship was inferred more than tripled, the 1978 relationship still provides a reasonable fit to the data.

Construction Noise Control Technology Initiatives
C.W. Patton; W. Benson; J. Kirkland; L. Ronk; B. Rudman; R. Samis; M. Staiano
September 1980
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The objective of this report is to develop construction noise technology initiatives which could be implemented by the Technology and Federal Programs Division, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, U.S. EPA during the period FY1981-FY1985. The report includes background information on the impact of construction noise, actions that have been carried out by Federal, State and local governments to control construction equipment and construction site noise, and a forecast of construction activity for the period 1980-1985. Construction noise technology needs are developed by: (1) analyzing the noise problems and needs of State and local governments reported in several EPA sponsored surveys; (2) interviews with knowledgable persons in the Federal government, and (3) a telephone survey of equipment manufacturers, construction contractors and trade organizations. Technology initiatives are identified based on the analysis of needs. Project descriptions for each initiative are included in the Appendix. The relative priority for implementing each project is determined using a priority ranking scheme. Finding and conclusions based on the expressed needs, the techology initiatives, and the priority for implementing the technology projects are presented.

Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance
Theodore J. Schultz
March 1978
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Since noise was first recognized as a serious environmental pollutant, a number of social surveys have been conducted in order to assess the magnitude of the problem and to develop suitable noise ratings, such that, from a measurement of certain physical characteristics of community noise, one could reliably predict the community's subjective response to the noise. Recently, the author has reviewed the data from social surveys concerning the noise of aircraft, street traffic, expressway traffic, and railroads. Going back to the original published data, the various survey noise ratings were translated to day-night average sound level, and an independent judgment was made, where choices were possible, as in which respondents should be counted as "higly annoyed". The results of 11 of these surveys show a remarkable consistency. It is proposed that the average of these curves is the best currently available relationship for predicting community annoyance due to transportation noise of all kinds.

Noise Source Regulations in State and Local Noise Ordinances
Vijay K. Kohli
August 1979
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The Noise Control Act of 1972 authorizes the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide technical assistance to States and local communities to facilitate development and implementation of their environmental noise control programs. To insure that the EPA technical assistance program is responsive to needs of States and local communities, EPA periodically updates a summary of State and local noise regulations. This document updates EPA 550/9-75-020, entitled "Noise Source Regulations in State and local Ordinances", February 1975. It is prepared as a planning and reference guide for State and local officials engaged in the development and implementation of environmental noise control programs. The information included in this report is taken largely from noise ordinances submitted to EPA as part of the response to the 1977-78 Environmental Noise COntrol Program Survey, but is supplemented by other source material available at the time of writing. No attempt has been made to solicit copies of ordinances from states or communities not included in the survey. Therefore, the information contained in this report is not all-inclusive. For further information, the reader should refer to specific laws or ordinances. The State laws summarized in this report are arranged under the following headings: -Motor Vehicles (or Self-Propelled Vehicles), -Recreational Vehicles, -Land Use. The local ordinances are presented under the following headings: -Motor Vehicles (or Self-Propelled Vehicles), -Recreational Vehicles, -Land Use, -Construction, -Intrusive Sources.

San Diego, California - Case History of a Municipal Noise Control Program
November 1978
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This case history of the noise control program of San Diego, California, is one of four supporting an outreach technical assistance program, Each Community Helps Others (ECHO), of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The four case-history studies will provide the ECHO Program - whose goal is to have viable and quantitative noise control ordinances in 400 communities and 40 states throughout the United States by 1985 - with the documented experience of communities that already have an on-going, successful, and outstanding noise control program.

Background Document for Final Interstate Rail Carrier Noise Emission Regulation: Source Standards
December 1979
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued, on December 31, 1975, a noise emission regulation for locomotives and railcars operated by interstate rail carriers (40 CFR Part 201). In developing the December 31, 1975 railroad noise emission regulation, EPA considered broadening the scope of the regulation to include facilities and additional equipment. BEcause of the wide disparity in perceived severity of noise problems found at differing rail facilities, the Agency decided that railroad facility and equipment noise, other than that produced by locomotives or railcars, was best controlled by measures which did not require national uniformity or treatment. Further, EPA believed that the health and welfare of the Nation's population being jeopardized by railroad facility and equipment noise, other than locomotives and railcars, was best served by specific controls at the state and local level and not by federal regulations, which would have to address railroads on a national, and therefore on a more general basis. Where the Federal government establishes standards for railroad facilities and equipment, states and local authorities ordinarily are preempted unless they adopt standards identical to the federal standards. For these reasons, EPA decided to leave state and local authorities free to address site-specific problems, on a case-by-case basis, without unnecessary federal hindrance....

Wyle Research Report WCR 75-2 - Community Noise Countermeasures Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Robert Rackl; Louis Sutherland; Jack Swing
July 1975
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The objective of this study is to provide supporting informations for use in formulating motor vehicle and higway noise policies within an overall national policy of community noise abatement. In the course of the research work, a comprehensive community noise exposure model capable of evaluating and optimizing noise reduction countermeasures, especially as related to ground transportation noise sources, has been developed. The model has been evaluated for a defined future time period (1978), and refined on an actual experimental city (Spokane, Washington) which has been selected as a typical U.S. city from a noise exposure standpoint. Hence, results obtained in the analysis conducted for Spokane are applicable to a broad category of U.S. cities, with certain specific cautions, which are further defined later.

First Report on the Federal Urban Noise Initiative
February 1980
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In his Environmental Message to the Congress on August 2, 1979, President Carter announced a new Urban Noise Initiative. The Initiative established an Interagency Connittee on Urban Noise to carry out a five point urban noise program: 1. Initiation of programs to achieve soundproofing and weatherization of noise-sensitive buildings such as schools and hospitals. 2. Promotion of the use og quiet-design features in the planning, design and operation of proposed urban transportation projects. 3. Encouragement of noise-sensitive developments, such as housing, to be located away from major noise sources. 4. Help to Federal, state and local agencies to buy equipment and products. 5. Support of neighborhood self-reliance efforts to address local noise problems. Important progress has been made since the Presidents' Message was issued. The purpose of this report is to briefly indicate those actions which have been taken and plans for future action. It fulfills the President's requirement for a report by February 1, 1980.

Report on: The Contribution of Medium and Heavy Trucks to Community Noise on a National Scale
J.D. Allen; M.D. Kurre
March 1981
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Some of the community noise modelling techniques developed by Battelle for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers' Association over the past three years have been applied to the problem of calculating the benefits, in terms of community noise reduction, of various promulgated, proposed, and hypothetical medium and heavy truck noise emission regulations. The study involved modelling the national traffic noise exposure, initially for a baseline case, and then for a sequence of different cases in which the model inputs corresponding to the medium and heavy truck noise emission levels were varied to simulate the effect of the regulations on community noise levels. It was found that the contribution of medium and heavy truck powertrains in a pre-regulatory national scenario accounted for nearly one-third of the total community noise exposure resulting from road traffic of all kinds. The 1978 (83 dBA) regulation potentially removes nearly half of the noise exposure of medium and heavy trucks. The 1983 (80 dBA) regulation brings about a less pronounced additional benefit, potentially removing somewhat more than one-fourth of the noise exposure. Still more stringent regulations bring about smaller and smaller additional benefits. The medium and heavy truck noise emission data base was compiled from recent literature. The remainder of the comprehensive data base employed was taken from a single source (EPA, Reference 12) and included: (1) noise emission characteristics of automobiles, light trucks, buses and motorcycles, (2) physical description of road types, including lane number and spacing, (3) attenuation rates for noise propagation through the community, (4) driving characteristics for all vehicle types on all road types, (5) traffic densities, (6) total miles for each road type, and (7) population densities. No attempt was made to verify the data given in Reference 12. It was expedient to perform the calculations with conditions similar to those assumed in EPA's modelling efforts. Not only in the case of input data was it desired to maximize the overlap with EPA calculations, but also in the reporting of the results. Therefore, the number of people exposed to average day-night weighted outdoor community noise levels (ldn) in excess of 55 decibels (A-weighted) was the number used to quantify traffic noise exposure on a national scale. However, because we believe that this method of quantification is insufficient when used alone, our national traffic noise exposures were further defined i terms of exceedance levels and other criterion values for Ldn. The EPA is currently modifying its community noise modelling methodology to make it more sensitive to community noise characteristics not well represented by Ldn.

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Special Local Determinations Procedures for Interstate Railroad Noise Emission Standards and Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards and Guidelines for State and Local Governments on the Filing and Processing of
November 1976
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Boise Community Noise Survey
May 1979
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In conjunction with the Ads Planning Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its Office of Noise Abatement and Control and its Region X office inventoried the noise climate in Boise, Idaho to test the accuracy of a physical measurement protocol. EPA hopes it will become part of a broad technical assistance package available to communities who may wish to develop or improve a noise control program. Based on the Boise results, the spatial sampling method will be revised slightly so that the sample will better represent the real noise climate.

Community Noise Assessment Manual - Social Survey Workbook
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The U.S. Environemtnal Protection Agency has developed a "Community Noise Assessment Manual" to provide local governments detailed guidelines in developing a comprehensive noise control program. This manual includes the following documents: Acoustical Survey, Social Survey Workbook, and Community Noise Strategy Guidelines. This specific document - the second referenced above - is a workbook which provides specific instruction for the design and administration of a social survey of community attitudes towards noise. The reader is referred to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Noise Abatement and Control for assistance in analysis and interpretation of this survey data and for infromation concerning the other referenced publications.

Environmental Assessment of Airport Development Actions
January 1977
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The purpose of this document is to provide specific step-by-step guidance on the preparation of environmental impact assessment reports and statements for airport projects in accordance with DOT/FAA, EPA, CEQ, and other regulatory and reviewing agency requirements. It is intended that this document provide instructional material which will extend beyond present guidelines which state what impacts to consider; the guidance book is designed to explain how each potential impact should be approached, analyzed, referenced, and presented. Included in this text are instructions on how to collect and analyze environmental impact data so as to provide clear, responsive documentation in conformance with specifc Federal, state and local laws and regulations. This book covers all steps of the study and review process including assessment methodologies and report preparation, public hearing presentation, responses to comments raised by reviewing agencies and the general public, and final statement preparation....

An Evaluation of Strategies to Control Noise from Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Condensing Units.
George L. Durden; John O. Myers; Thomas A. Towers; Donna McCord Dickman
December 1981
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This report details the strategies evaluated and assesses the experience encountered in the investigation of noise from air conditioning and refrigeration condensing units in the State of Maryland. Each isdesigned to provide guidance for other state and local noise programs faced with similar noise problems. Hence, emphasis is placed on the practical aspects of attempting to implement innovative approaches. These included: (1) Sample selection, (2) noise measurement survey, (3) implementation of aggressive abatement procedures, (4) development and use of a screening graph for determining acceptability of sound rated outdoor unitary equipment, (5) incorporation of noise control considerations into The Division of Food Control, (6) exploration of an operational curfew, (7) development of an incentive/information program.

Guidelines for State and Local Governments on the Filing and Processing of Applicants for Preemption Waiver Determinations under Section 17 (c)(2) of the Noise Control Act of 1972
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These guidelines are to act as a supplement to the provisions of Subpart D of 40 CFR 201, which contain the detailed delineation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's view of the preemptive effect of the Interstate Railroad Noise Emission Regulation and establish the basis upon which determinations for waivers of preemption with respect to that regulation will be made by the Agency. The guidelines set out below contain the procedures to be followed by State and local governments in filing, and by the EPA in processing applications for waiver of preemption. Included are procedural requirements as to where applications must be filed and what information must be included in supporting statements necessary for the Administrator of the EPA to make a determination, as well as procedures delineating the manner in which the decision process will be conducted for all apllications submitted to the Agency. It is important that State and local governments follow the requirements of and utilize the guidance provided by both these guidelines and the procedures of Subpart D of 40 CFR 201 in addressing any questions or issues associated with the preemptive aspects of the EPA's Interstate Railroad Noise Emission Regulation.

Community Noise Ordinances: Their Evolution, Purpose and Impact
Clifford R. Bragdon
March 1973
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In the United States most municipal noise ordinances initially regulated street related activities, however, these early provisions were generally non-quantitative and consequently unenforceable. The first ordinances containing specific permissible noise levels regulated either activities fixed to the land (industrial activity being the primary source) or automobile and trucks operating on roadways. Today more comprehensive ordinances are evolveing and these regulations are the basis for expanded municipal noise control programs. Their impact has varied due to the quality, content and administration of these ordinances. Recently approved Federal noise legislation (Noise Control Act of 1972) will have a profound influence on the quality and quantity of municipal ordinances.

NRTA-AARP - Noise Counseling Program
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The Community Noise Counseling Program sponsored by The National Retired Teachers Association-American Association of Retired Persons, was initiated September 22, 1978 with contractual agreement with EPA-ONAC. The Administration of the program was the responsibility of the Association's Senior Community Service Employment Program, Special Programs, and from the start was carried on in conjunction with the Older Worker Employment Program. SCSEP eligible enrollees were recruited and assigned to the Noise Counseling Program by Project Directors in local projects where needs were identified and the site selection was made and approved by EPA program officials. Linda Scott was hired as Program Coordinator for the Program, and was given the responsibility of training and supervising the selected enrollee Noise Counselors. Eight selected enrollees were given formal training in October, 1978. In addition to the SCSEP program enrollees assigned, several volunteers were recruited and given both formal and individualized training in Community Noise Abatement projects. In evaluating the Program, nothing stands out as much as the excellent performance of these Older Worker Program enrollees, when given: a meaningful job and assigned to a specific task; training and guidance to prepare them; and support and motivation from the SCSEP Projects and the community. In the words of the EPA Project Officer; "The program is very valuable to EPA because it works". When given the challenge, the Noise Counselors responded. The increased awareness in their communities is well documented by publicity, letters of commendation, and on going public service announcements, and, in general, increased efforts to pass meaningful local noise legislation by local officials, and increased enforcement for existing noise ordinances in their communities have been as a result of their efforts.

Municipal/State Noise Ordinances - Reprinted with Permission of "Sound & Vibration" Magazine
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The enactment of city noise ordinances continues to grow in the United States. Compiled below is the current list of 652 municipalities with noise regulations, up 21% over the 1975 figure of 539. These ordinances now affect a combined population of over 67 million people. There is a continuing interest in enacting legislation with quantitative noise emission limits which replace non-quantitative or general nuisance provisions...

Sound Advice: A Volunteer Noise Counselor's Guide
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In neighborhoods across the country, people are realizing that noise is a serious matter, and that practical steps are available to reduce noise. Mnay communities have been successful in reducing or eliminating noise problems. The success is usually the result of many individuals and groups working together. As a volunteer noise counselor, you can work with other volunteers to control or reduce noise. "Sound Advice" is a noise abatement program which can help to make your community a healthier and better place to live. This handbook will help volunteers interested in acting as noise counselors in a community noise abatement program. It explains the reasons for a noise abatement program, the role of the noise counselor, and some of the techniques a noise counselor can use to reduce neighborhood noise. Also included is an appendix to help locate resource materials and key people in the community.

Airfields Environment Trust - Airfields and the Environment: Can Local Authorities Hold the Balance?
June 1989
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One-day conference on the role of local authorities in the development of airfields and the control of the adverse impact of business and general aviation on the environment.

Review and Analysis of Present and Planned FAA Noise Regulatory Actions and Their Consequences Regarding Aircraft and Airport Operations
July 1973
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The purpose of this report is to examine the existing and proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations and to consider their effectiveness in furnishing protection to the public health and welfare and to consider their effectiveness in furnishing protection to the public health and welfare and to consider whether they adequately exploit the available technology. This report begins with a review of the legislative history of noise control and briefly identifies the regulatory status of the FAA and relevant noise control actions of several state and local authorities....

Background Document for Proposed Revision to Rail Carrier Noise Emission Regulation
February 1979
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In accordance with Section 17 of the Noise Control Act of 1972, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on January 14, 1976, promulgated noise emission standards for railroad locomotives and rail cars which are used in interstate commerce. That regulation was challenged in a suit brought against the Agency by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) on the basis that it included only locomotives and rail cars and therefore did not preempt state and local regulation of all rail carriers' equipment and facilities. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia has ruled that the Agency must broaden the scope of the existing railroad regulation.

Guidelines for Developing a Training Program in Noise Survey Techniques
William Gately; Paul L. Michael; George W. Kamperman
July 1975
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The report contains guidelines for the content, format, organization, and administration of a training program for noise survey technicians. It is intended to provide assistance to State and local governements in setting up a training program with the following objective: the training of technicians to assist in the enforcement of noise ordinances and investigation of noise complaints. The program is directed toward trainees with a minimum of a high school education and no previous experience in acoustics. The report outlines and explains material to be covered in a 4 1/2 day training program.

Colorado Springs, Colorado - Case History of a Municipal Noise Control Program
February 1979
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This technical case study of the noise control program in Colorado Springs, Colorado, was developed to enable noise control administrators and municipal officials from other local communities to benefit from the experience gained in Colorado Springs. This study was prepared under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Noise Abatement and Control. Colorado Springs was chosen for this study because the city has a vigorous noise control program that receives enthusiastic support from the city government and the populace. As with any local community program for noise control and abatement, it is a unique product of many community factors such as environment, demography, economic growth and business composition, structure and function of municipal government, and especially the interest and resourcefulness of the key individuals responsible for operating the program. Because of these and other variables, it is difficult if not impossible to attribute the program's overall success to any particular aspect of the effort. Rather, this report examines the Colorado Springs program in all of its phases with particular emphasis on those aspect which could be employed successfully byother local communities. Those who use this report should avoid the oversimplification of attempting to apply the methods used by Colorado Springs in an identical way to their own communities. A successful community noise control program will be a program that is responsive to the particular needs and problems of that community. The significant ingredients of the Colorado Springs noise control effort are the ideas and concepts that can be appropriated for that city and adapted to the needs and problems of other communities. How those ideas and concepts are specifically adapted, however, can be determined only by the noise control administrator or municipal official responsible for developing the program.

Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control
April 1977
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This document has been developed to continue the dialogue on the overall goals of the noise program, the role of government, the role of consumers, and the role of industry in noise control, along with the selection of specific abatement and enforcement activities for EPA. It establishes a general framework for making decisions on the best strategy that EPA can employ to combat noise pollution. The primary goal of the Agency in the noise pollution area is to promote an environment for all Americans, free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare. In order to reach this legislatively mandated objective five specific operational goals have been formulated. These are: (A)To take all practical steps to eliminate hearing loss resulting from noise exposure; (B)To reduce environmental noise exposure to an Ldn value of no more than 75 dB immediately; (C)To reduce noise exposure levels to Ldn 65 dB by vigorous regulatory and planning actions; (D)To strive for an eventual reduction of noise levels to an Ldn of 55 dB; and (E)To encourage and assist other Federal, State and local agencies in the adoption and implementation of long range noise control policies.

Docket 01-82 - Index of State and Local Materials
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Noise Standards for Aircraft Type Certification (Modifications to Far Part 36)
William C. Sperry; Damon C. Gray
August 1976
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This document presents and discusses the background data used by the Agency in the development of proposed noise control regulations for promulgation by the FAA in conformance with the Noise Control Act of 1972. The proposed regulations pertain to control of airplane noise at the source and would amend the existing Federal Aviation Regulations PART 36 (FAR 36). FAR 36 was the first type certification regulation for aircraft noise prescribed by any nation. It is a comprehensive rule containing highly technical appendices whose purposes are to require the maximum feasible use of noise control technology, to set standards for the acquisition of noise levels, and to obtain data useful for predicting the noise impact in airport neighborhood communities. Since the promulgation of FAR 36 in 1969, noise control technology has advanced substantially, the significance of community noise impact is much better understood, and the techniques and equipment for data acquisition and reduction have improved considerably. It is appropriate, therefore, to consider amendments to FAR 36 with the objective of strengthening and extending the original purposes, and , in particular, to eliminate any ambiguities that may exist.

Model Noise Control Ordinance
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The Model Noise Control Ordinance (model ordinance) is intended to be a basic tool which communities, both large and small, can use to construct noise control ordinances suited to local needs and conditions. The complete model ordinance, including optional provisions, is perhaps more suitable for larger communities, with populations of about 100,000 or more. Smaller communities and large communities with limited resources may wish to adopt only those provisions which address their most pressing noise problems. It is important that the community ensure that all provisions adopted are realistic in relation to local needs and conditions; that all provisions are consistent with one another, with other local law, and with State and Federal law; and, finally, that all provisions are clear and otherwise well drafted so that enforcement problems will be minimalized.

State and Local Environmental Noise Control: 1980 Survey Report
December 1981
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The 1980 state and local environmental noise survey is the fourth in a series of noise control assessments conducted in 1971, 1974 and 1978 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The survey was designed to determine the status of noise control programs in states and cities with over 20,000 population. Eighty-two percent of the states and 58% of the 1200 cities surveyed returned questionnaires. The results of the survey are arranged in the following sections and subsequent chapters of the report: -Public Awareness of Noise, -Legislation and Enforcement, -Noise Control Programs, -State and Local Resources, -EPA's Technical Assistance Program.

State and Municipal Noise Control Activities 1973-1974
ONAC
January 1976
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Presented is an assessment of 1973-1974 State and municipal environment noise control efforts based on an EPA survey of States and municipalities with population greater than 75,000. This assessment is designed to provide an overall perspective of the composition and scope of noise control efforts. Areas covered are: organization and orientation of noise control efforts, enforcement, budgetary data, personnel, equipment, program problems and applications of technical assistance. The survey results have been used by EPA/ONAC as a guide in the present technical assistance program. This document has been prepared primarily as a planning and reference guide for public administrators and other officials engaged in the development and implementation of environmental noise control programs.

The Balance Sheet Technique: Volume II: Preconstruction Review of Airports: Review of State Regulations, Projects Affected and Resource Requirements
Sarah J. LaBelle; Dorathea A. Seymour; Albert E. Smith; Michael Harbour
February 1977
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This volume of the report contains the results of several surveys and analyses to ascerrtain the effect of airport indirect source review (ISR) requirements. This material is all dated, in the sense that the survey of state activities and the forecast of proposed construction are accurate as of the date the survey was completed. The material does shec light on the magnitude of the problems posed by indirect source review of airports. In conjunction with the test case results presented in Volume I of this report, a fairly clear picture of the effect of such regulation emerges. The regulation would in fact cause review of 30-50 major airport projects that may not be reviewed under any other program. The airports are significant regional sources of hydrocarbon emissions, and become more so over the ten year planning horizon.

Noise Training Manual
P.L. Michael; D.M. DeJoy; R.L. Kerlin; A.H. Kohut; J.H. Prout
December 1977
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This manual is a compendium of information considered to be essential to the development of successful community noise control programs. It is intended to satisfy the needs of a broad lay audience who will be involved in the legislative, administrative, and technical aspects of this program. Because unique problems may be encountered in individual community noise abatement programs, references have been included at the ned of each chapter to direct the reader to additional resource material. Also, Appendix B to this manual provides a list of some source reference that are likely to be useful to persons involved in community noise abatement programs.