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Most useful EPA documents
See also Residential.
State/Local Programs and Capability for Noise Control
Prior to the establishment of EPA's Office of Noise Abatement and Control and the passage of Federal noise control legislation, many cities and States had in place varying types of legislation and were implementing programs to control noise within their jurisdictions. In 1971, before the passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972, an EPA questionnaire was completed by 114 cities with populations over 100,000 and by 41 States. Although the responses often indicated relatively minimal or fragmented efforts to address the problem, twenty-two (22) States and sixty-one (61) of the cities had some legal authority and/or programs to control noise.
Noise and Urban Pedestrian Areas
This study consists of three reports which treat the subject of noise within the context of urban pedestrian areas. The main concern of the study is noise mitigation, although its contents cover a wide range of topics related to noise in the urban environment. The first report provides a description of existing noise mitigation techniques which have application to pedestrian improvement areas. The second report summarizes the actual application of noise mitigation techniques to pedestrian areas based on the results of a questionnaire sent to pedestrian projects throughout the country. The second report also includes the formulation of noise abatment criteria for the design of Broadway Plaza, a proposed pedestrian project in New York City. The third report analyzes actual noise levels and attitudes by pedestrians toward noise in several public plazas in New York CIty based on actual noise monitoring and attitudinal surveys in the plazas.
Noise Emission Standards for Transportation Vehicles - Proposed Motorcycle Noise Emission Regulations - Draft Environmental and Inflationary Impact Statement
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued proposed noise emission regulations for newly manufactured motorcycles and motorcycle replacement exhaust systems. These proposed regulations are intended to alleviate the problem of motorcycle noise not only in cities and on highways, but in off-road environments as well. This draft Environmental and Inflationary Impact Statement (EIS-IIS) presents in summary form benefits to be gained from the proposed motorcycle noise standards, and the economic implications of this action. Also presented are the principal regulatory options which were considered by EPA. The information contained in this document will provide an understanding of the issues involved with this proposed rulemaking, and of EPA's strategy in promoting a quieter, more livable environment for all Americans.
National League of Cities - Environmental Report - Buying Quiet is Good Buying Practice
Airport Access Study - Impact of Airport-Oriented Vehicle Trips on Highway Facilities
This study was initiated by the Federal Highway Administration's Urban Planning Division for the primary purpose of developing a method to assess the impact of airport-oriented vehicular trips on highway facilities. This was accomplished using existing urban transportation study data files and computer programs available from the Federal Highway Administration.
Board Urges City to "Buy Quiet"
Re-printed below in its entirety is a resolution recently passed by the Jacksonville, Florida, Environmental Protection Board.
Community Noise Assessment Manual - Startegy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program
In response to Congressional mandates, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, has funded the development of a series of manuals, prepared by Wyle Laboratories, to support a Quiet Cities Program. The first of these manuals, entitled "Community Noise Assessment Manual - Social Survey Workbook," provided detailed instructions for conducting an attitudinal survey on noise in a community. The second manual, entitled "Community Noise Assessment Manual - Acoustical Survey," provided detailed practical procedures for conducting a noise measurement survey in a community. This manual, the third in this series, is designed to assist local governments in making logical and cost-effective decisions on the allocation of funds to reduce the adverse effects of noise in their communities. To make maximum use of the material in this document, a community will have utilized the preceding manuals, or their equivalents, to obtain detailed data on the noise environment, and attitudes toward this environment, in their community. However, this manual also stands alone in that it contains many useful guidelines and procedures which a community can utilize to decide on the most efficient allocation of effort and funds directed toward preserving the natural resource - quiet - in their community.
Wyle Research Report WR 78-13 - Light Vehicle Noise: Volume II - Implementation and Evaluation of a Test Procedure to Measure the Noise Emissions of Light Vehicles Operating in Urban Areas
Ben H. Sharp; Paul R. Donovan; Vijay K. Kahli
Population Distribution of the United States as a Function of Outdoor Noise Level - Volume 2
This appendix provides a description of each of the 100 measurement sites utilized during this project. The computer output listings for each of the sites are also presented. Data are presented by city, in alphabetical order. Figures B-1 through B-14 show maps of the fourteen cities in which noise measurements were obtained. On each map the specific measurement locations are indicated. Figures B-15 through B-114 provide data for each of the sites. The first page of each figure, labeled Figure B-xx(a) provides a physical description of the site. A photo and vicinity map are shown, and the address, population density, and measured Ldn value are given. Also listed are various parameters of the traffic flow in the general vicinity of the site. The street on which the site is located, and the street in the vicinity of the site, are both classified into one of four categories: freeway, arterial, collector, and local. Also indicated are the types of vehicles that traverse these streets. Noise sources other than traffic that affect the noise environment at the site are also listed. The second page of the figure, labeled Figure B-xx(b), lists various statistics and noise levels for each hour of the day. Tabulated are the maximum and minimum values occurring during the hour, the noise pollution level (NPL), the standard deviation (SIG) of the distribution of levels occurring during the hour, the L-equivalent level (LEQ), and the traffic noise index (TNI). Various percentile levels ranging from L1 to L99 are also listed. Similar noise measures are tabulated for the daytime (0700-2200 hrs.) and nighttime (2200-0700 hrs.) periods on the final page, labeled Figure B-xx(c). Plotted at the top of this page is the distribution of levels for the daytime and nighttime periods. Also, the weighted 24-hour L-equivalent value, with weighting factors of 0, 8, 10, and 12 decibels for the nighttime period, are listed. Note that the weighted L-equivalent value for a weighting factor of 10 decibels is the day/night sound level (Ldn).
National League of Cities - The Buy Quiet Program
Wyle Research Report WR 78-2 - Light Vehicle Noise: Volume I - Development of a Test Procedure to Measure the Noise Emissions of Light Vehicles Operating in Urban Areas
Ben H. Sharp; Paul R. Donovan
Model Community Noise Control Ordinance
National Institute of Municipal Law Officers; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
This report contains a model ordinance for use by cities and counties in the development of noise control ordinances tailored to local conditions and goals. It is a comprehensive, performance-standard noise ordinance intended to overcome enforcement problems associated with the outmoded nuisance law approach to noise control. This report contains sections on the control of noise from both stationary and mobile sources and includes land use planning provisions. A preamble gives important explanatory information for certain ordinance sections.
Nation's Cities - "A Special Report - How Cities Combat Noise"
Audibility and Annoyance of En Route Noise of Unducted Fan Engines
Sanford A. Fidell; Linda A. Hutchings; Marie Helweg-Larsen; Laura A. Silvati
Aircraft flyovers heard in high ambient noise urban environments are composed in large part of high absolute level, broadband noise. In contrast, noise exposure created en route by aircraft powered by unducted fan engines is expected to be relatively low in level, but to contain prominent low frequency tonal energy. These tones may be readily audible in low ambient noise rural environments. The annoyance of noise intrusions of low absolute level has been shown to be closely related to their audibility. Thus, one way to predict the annoyance of high altitude overflights by aircraft equipped with unducted fan engines is to estimate their audibility relative to that of conventionally powered aircraft in various ambient noise conditions. These predictions may be converted into estimates of the probability of high annoyance by means of a dosage-response relationship derived from laboratory data about the annoyance of individual noise intrusions. The latter estimates may in turn be applied to populations exposed to unducted fan engine noise over a range of assumed exposure levels. Application of these procedures to several assumed exposure cases suggests that millions of people in rural areas of the United States would be likely to be highly annoyed by the noise of aircraft powered by unducted fan engines.
Wyle Research Report WR 79-23 Light Vehicle Noise: Volume V - An Urban Driving Study to Determine the Operating and Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Light Vehicles
Eric Stusnick; Peter K. Kasper
Board Urges City to "Buy Quiet"
Propagation of Urban Construction Site Noise Along Street Corridors
Paul R. Donavan; J. Craig Wyvill
An existing urban sound propagation model has been applied to the specific problem of estimating the propagation of noise from urban construction sites along street corridors. Discussion summarizes the development of the propagation model and computer programs used to estimate sound propagation. The propagation model has been applied to five different construction site orientations resulting from two city block configurations. For each of the site orientations, the estimated values of attenuation versus distance in the streets surrounding individual sites are presented. Assuming the sound level at the construction site is known, the procedure to be used to determine sound levels in the surrounding streets is also provided.
Environmental Report - National League of Cities - The President's Noise Initiative…
Environmental Report - National League of Cities - Buying Quiet is Good Buying Practice
State and Municipal Non-Occupational Noise Programs
This document is a report on state and municipal government non-occupational noise abatement and control programs prepared from information obtained in response to a questionnaire disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The questionnaire and a letter of inquiry were part of a study to establish the national need for legislation and research concerning noise abatement and control. They were forwarded by the EPA Administrator to the governors of each state (including Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands) and the mayors of the 153 cities having populations, as of 1970, of 100,000 or more. The questionnaire requested information concerning the level and scope of existing and planned noise abatement and control programs. It furthermore solicited opinions on what additional support programs could be developed by the Federal government. Described herein are the replies of 114 mayors and of 41 governors.
Regulation of Noise in Urban Areas
William S. Gately; Edwin E. Frye
Urban Noise Counseling Program - Handbook for Urban Noise Counseling
The following handbook has been written for you, the urban noise counselor. It contains both information and ideas which will help you in your efforts to improve the quality of life in your neighborhood. This handbook is a resource document as well as a workbook. You will read about the reasons for a noise counseling program, the role of the noise counselor, and some of the techniques a noise counselor can use in reducing neighborhood noise. You will also find some forms in the appendix which have been designed to help you set your objectives and to assist you in locating the key people in your community who can help you reach your objectives. In addition to this handbook, special training is available. This training can play an important part in your role as an urban noise counselor. However, you are not expected to become a technical expert in the properties of sound or in the intricate details of sound measurement. Your role is that of a catalyst, providing information, ideas, and direction to individuals, citizen groups, and perhaps public officials who can take action to reduce their own noise exposure as well as the exposure of others as a result of your efforts.
Inter Noise 72 - International Conference on Noise Control Engineering
Proceedings of the 1972 International Conference on Noise Control Engineering held at Washington D.C. on October 4-6, 1972. Sponsored by the Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) in Cooperation with the Acoustical Society of America, the International Acoustics Commission of IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and six agencies of the U.S. Federal Government: Department of Health Education and Welfare, Department of Houseing and Urban Development, Department of Labor, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Bureau of Standards.
Potential Effectiveness of Barriers Toward Reducing Highway Noise Exposure on a National Scale
Kenneth J. Plotkin; Vijay K. Kohii
Calculations have been performed to assess the potential effectiveness of barriers toward reducing noise exposure from the federal-aid highway system. Noise exposure, in terms of the numbers of people exposed to Ldn greater than 60, 65, 70, and 75 dB, from the primary federal-aid system was computed to present traffic flow and projected traffic through the year 2000. Reductions in noise exposure were computed for several scenarios of constructing barriers along urban interstate highways. It was found that significant reduction of noise exposure would require barriers along most of the urban interstate system. The benefit (in terms of reduction of exposed population) per mile of barrier construction was found to be greatest at high noise levels (Ldn greater than or equal to 75 dB). It was concluded that barriers would not provide relief in extremely noisy local applications.
Energy Conservation and Noise Control in Urban Residences: Demonstration Program Plan
David N. Keast; Donna D. Berman
Planning activities have been underway for about five months to design an Energy Conservation and Noise Control Demonstration Program for the decade of the 1980s. This effort has been under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the National Bureau of Standards. The resulting plan for conducting the demonstration is discussed in this report.
Engineers Core Curriculum - Highway Traffic Noise
Numerous studies indicate that the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today are those associated with transportation. Traffic noise tends to be the dominant noise source in our urban as well as rural environment. In response to the problem associated with traffic noise, FHPM 7-7-3, "Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise," establishes a requirement for a noise study for any proposed Federal or Federal-aid project. This regulation specifies procedures that State transportation agencies must follow in preparing assessments for highway noise for proposed projects. The purpose of this document is to provide a simple and concise discussion on how to implement these procedures. Two individual 1-week long training courses are available for instructing FHWA field staffs and State highway agencies (SHA) in the detailed technical methodologies for analyzing and abating traffic noise impacts. This document is intended to provide information necessary for FHWA Regional and Division office staffs' reviews of SHA noise analyses.
A Method for Assessing Automobile Noise
This study presents a methods that can be used to examine and quantify each factor contributing to motor vehicle noise produced by automobile accelerating on city/suburban streets. It is based on data collected in six different jurisdictions subject to a range of noise control programs and was developed to assisst State/local jurisdictions to formulate or refine motor vehicle noise control programs.
The Urban Noise Survey
Most of the existing social survey data base on community annoyance has been in character and has been concerned primarily with airport and highway related noise. An essential element in assessing the impact of noise in urban areas away from airports and highways is the evaluation of the attitudes of people concerning the noise in the residential environment. A social survey was conducted to sample opinion over the entire range of noise exposure and population density characteristics of non-rural America.The objective of the Urban Noise Survey was to develop a first order relationship between noise exposure and human response as a function of situational and attitudinal variables associated with the life styles of people in various urban environments. This survey differed from prior surveys in the general area of noise pollution in several important aspects: (1) it was specifically designed to study noise exposure not directly related to airport and highway sources; (2) the social survey was made in conjunction with simultaneous physical measurements of noise exposure at sites with widely different noise environments; (3) it was national rather than local in character and was addressed to a broad rather than narrow range of noise exposures and respondents' life styles. Some of the major conclusions are that: (a) exposure to noise typical of many urban (non-aircraft and non-highway) environments produces widespread annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbance; (b) a strong relationship was demonstrated between exposure level and the proportion of a community highly annoyed by noise; (c) the prevalence of speech interference is an especially good predictor of annoyance; (d) the number of complaints about noise is a poor predictor of the prevalence of annoyance; (e) demographic factors alone are relatively poor predictors of noise annoyance; (f) freedom from noise exposure is a component of a neighborhood satisfaction, and quiet is highly valued; (g) noises associated with automotive sources are the most pervasive sources of annoying noise in urban areas; (h) annoyance associated with intrusive noise sources may be related to measurable noise exposure from such sources, even when their magnitudes are not as great as the level of overall exposure in a community; (i) there is some evidence that human response to noise exposure at Ldn values in excess of 70 dB is more acute than at lower levels.
Colorado Springs, Colorado - Case History of a Municipal Noise Control Program
This technical case study of the noise control program in Colorado Springs, Colorado, was developed to enable noise control administrators and municipal officials from other local communities to benefit from the experience gained in Colorado Springs. This study was prepared under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Noise Abatement and Control. Colorado Springs was chosen for this study because the city has a vigorous noise control program that receives enthusiastic support from the city government and the populace. As with any local community program for noise control and abatement, it is a unique product of many community factors such as environment, demography, economic growth and business composition, structure and function of municipal government, and especially the interest and resourcefulness of the key individuals responsible for operating the program. Because of these and other variables, it is difficult if not impossible to attribute the program's overall success to any particular aspect of the effort. Rather, this report examines the Colorado Springs program in all of its phases with particular emphasis on those aspect which could be employed successfully byother local communities. Those who use this report should avoid the oversimplification of attempting to apply the methods used by Colorado Springs in an identical way to their own communities. A successful community noise control program will be a program that is responsive to the particular needs and problems of that community. The significant ingredients of the Colorado Springs noise control effort are the ideas and concepts that can be appropriated for that city and adapted to the needs and problems of other communities. How those ideas and concepts are specifically adapted, however, can be determined only by the noise control administrator or municipal official responsible for developing the program.
The Effect of Tunnel Acoustic Treatment on the Noise Inside Subway Cars
H.H. Heller; E.K. Bender
This report investigates the possibilities and limitations of reducing the noise levels in the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) subway cars by acoustic treatment of the surfaces in subway tunnels. Acoustic measurements were conducted in NYCTA cars for various operating conditions. These were complemented by measurements outside the cars to obtain transmission loss data for various structural components of the cars. The report concludes with specific recommendations and provides estimates of their effect on car interior levels. The accompanying summarizes the changes in the car interior sound pressure level spectrum for various environmental conditions.
Noise and Vibration Characteristics of High Speed Transit Vehicles
The rapidly epanding problems of urban transportation have resulted in intensified activity in the development and construction of new fixed route, high speed rapid transit systems and equipment. The community noise and ground vibration cause by such systems and vehicles is a very important factor influencing public acceptance of these systems. Noise and vibration measurements obtained within modern operational and experimental transit vehicles provide a basis for determining the expected wayside or community airborne noise and ground-borne vibration levels for different types of new transit systems. Through the use of modern design concepts and equipment intended to provide reduced noise and vibration, the wayside noise and vibration caused by rapid transit system vehicles can be made acceptable and the operations can be much quieter than traditionally expected despite the general increase in speed of the newer systems which tends to increase noise and vibration. The purpose of this report is to present a review of the available information on wayside noise and vibration generated by rapid transit vehicles, primarily rail transit vehicles, including projection of the expected noise and vibration levels for highway speed vehicles being considered for future applications.
Traffic Noise Analysis - An Intensive Seminar on State-of-the-Art Methods for Analyzing Traffic Noise and Preparing a Noise Study Report
Louis F. Cohn
The seminar will utilize the latest computer tools available anywhere for traffic noise studies, including several developed at Vanderbilt University. The Vanderbilt computer facilities will be used by the attendees in an interactive fashion, to provide hands on experience. Also, the controversial I-440 urban freeway, currently under construction in Nashville, will be the focus of several workshop and field sessions.
Helicopter Noise Survey for Selected Cities in the Contiguous United States
Robert Main; Andrew Joshi; David Couts; Leslie Hilten
The FAA has conducted a series of noise surveys in the following urban areas: Chicago, IL; Long Beach, CA; New Orleans, LA; Portland, OR; and Seattle, WA. In each metropolitan area, noise measurements were made at three of four heliports or helipads. Land use surrounding the heliports ranged from residential to industrial. Noise levels for Lmax were recorded during each test at each heliport. Also recorded were ambient noise levels which were used as a basis for comparison of noise associated with helicopter operations versus urban background noise levels.
State and Local Environmental Noise Control: 1980 Survey Report
The 1980 state and local environmental noise survey is the fourth in a series of noise control assessments conducted in 1971, 1974 and 1978 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The survey was designed to determine the status of noise control programs in states and cities with over 20,000 population. Eighty-two percent of the states and 58% of the 1200 cities surveyed returned questionnaires. The results of the survey are arranged in the following sections and subsequent chapters of the report: -Public Awareness of Noise, -Legislation and Enforcement, -Noise Control Programs, -State and Local Resources, -EPA's Technical Assistance Program.
Laws and Regulatory Schemes for Noise Abatement
I - Among the more significant findings and conclusions of this Report are the following: - The existing Environmental Noise Regulatory Structure is fragmented in organization and ad hoc in operation. Abatement functions are distributed among Federal, State, and local governmental levels but are largely uncoordinated. - The environmental noise problem context is composed of a wide variety of discrete noise sources and noise environments. Numerous partial efforts have been made to regulate "excessive" or "unnecessary" noise through regulatory schemes directed to abatement at the source, reduction of the effects of noise, and to remedies (by private action) to abate the source or to reduce the effects. - Regulation by the Federal government has been slight. Even with respect to aircraft noise the pace of abatement at the source has been gradual with no short term prospects for substantial relief. - Regulation by the states has for the most part been limited to selected noise sources although some states are now in process of enacting comprehensive noise abatement statutes. - Most noise abatement regulation has taken place at the local level by means of general noise ordinances or ordinances directed to specific noise sources or by the creation of "quiet zones". - Both State and local governmental levels are handicapped in police power regulation of some of the more critical noise sources as a result of preemptive Federal legislation (aircraft noise) or by the threat of impinging upon a strong national interest in maintaining the free flow of interstate commerce. - Very little attention has been given to construction equipment or site noise, or to domestic noise sources. - Enforcement of noise abatement State statutes and municipal noise ordinances has been notoriously spasmodic and uniformly weak; in general, noise control enforcement has been placed on already overburdened State highway patrols or local police officers. - While both the Federal government and State governments have been slow to intervene in the noise regulatory area, certain trends point to a substantially increased level of effort: Federal level: Noise abatement (occupational) of all businesses operating in interstate commerce, Construction site noise abatement under the Construction Safety Act, Highway design to reduce noise effects. State level: Enactment of comprehensive environmental quality statutes, including environmental noise abatement codes, Enactment of specific legislation designed to control the total noise emissions of vehicles and to regulate the noise level operations of vehicles. Local level: Initial efforts by a few cities to enact comprehensive Environmental Noise Codes covering all or most of the serious noise sources and noise environments subject to municipal regulation, Growing sophistication at all governmental levels in noise abatement and control techniques, including the establishment of decibel levels to replace or supplement verbal-subjective standards, Increasing disposition to broaden coverage of noise sources and noise environments by regulatory schemes and to disseminate through labelling or by other means useful information on noise dangers and abatement techniques to the general public. II - Among the more significant continuing problems in the regulation of environmental noise identified by the Report are the following: - Lack of officials and organized public interest in aggressive noise abatement programs. - Conflict of the social interest in noise abatement with other social values such as safety or free expression which are accorded higher priority in the scheme of social interests. - Intensification of the stress between Federal efforts and State/local noise abatement efforts, especially in those regulatory contexts where Federal preemptive legislation is involved. - Continuing difficulty by State or local authorities to regulate noise to the satisfaction of local conditions and needs where such regulation requires control over the noise source or effects of vehicles, equipment, and appliances regularly moving in or operating in interstate commerce. - Continuing difficulty, due to the multiplicity of noise sources and noise environments, of determining what noise sources or effects are to be controlled by what level of government with respect to the setting of standards or to operating procedures, having appropriate regard for the need of uniformity of regulation in some areas and the need for diversity of regulation to suit unique local conditions in others.
Urban Traffic Noise - Strategy for an Improved Environment
Preliminary Estimates of the Health and Welfare Benefits of State and Local Surface Transportation Noise Control Programs
Michael A. Staiano; Robert A. Samis
The actual reduction in traffic noise exposure level for a given control measure can be conceptually considered a function of: the potential level reduction of the control, its applicability, the extent of its enforcement, and the effectiveness of its enforcement. A survey of the available literature yielded a reasonable amount of information regarding the potential level reductions of control measures, a limited amount of information regarding the observed exposure level reductions of control measures, and virtually no information regarding the applicability of controls, the extent of enforcement, or the effectiveness of enforcement. EPA's National Roadway Traffic Noise Exposure Model (NRTNEM) was used as a means of estimating the benefits of various state and local surface transportation noise control measures for the year 1985. Somewhat coarse simulations of the various controls gave the following results: -Various low speed vehicle noise control measures, applied nationwide, roughly halved of the surface transportation noise impact. -Upper estimates of high speed vehicle noise control measures (snow tire regulations and roadway surface treatment) yielded roughly a 2/5 reduction in impact. -The exclusion of noisy vehicles from residential areas, applied to cities with greater than 50,000 people population, has a potential for the reduction of impact by about 1/4. -Motorcycle enforcement resulting in the partial to total elimination of modified motorcycles has the potential for reducing impact between 1/5 to 1/4. -Reducing local speed limits, in cities of greater than 50,000 people population, was estimated to yield a maximum impact reduction of 1/5. -More stringent speed limit enforcement for highways, on a nationwide basis was estimated to have a maximum benefit of about 1/5 impact reduction. Recommendations for future work include refining NRTNEM itself to more realistically describe vehicle behavior at intersections, refining the simulations themselves to yield more accurate estimates (e.g., considering snow tire controls only for "snow states" and their exclusion only for summer months), and the simulation of simultaneous multiple complementary controls. Finally, any estimates must be considered in the light of reasonable expectations for the applicability, effectiveness and the extent of enforcement of control measures. In the absence of a data base for these parameters, sensitivity tests should be conducted.
National Ambient Noise Survey
Mark M. Hansen
The objectives, methodology, and results of a national survey of outdoor noise environments in urban residential areas are discussed. The objectives were to determine overall noise levels, source contributions, and patterns of spatial and temporal variation in these areas, along with the effect of three locational factors on these parameters. The survey employed a randomized site selection procedure, a startified sampling strategy, and a multifaceted measurement protocol to meet these objectives. Results of the survey include a simple model which predicts Ldn in these areas, projections of nationwide noise impact, average source contributions and temporal noise level histories and average variations in noise level at different locations around residential units.
Studies in Urban Transportation - Transportation Systems: Noise Generation and Abatement
Frank B. Hartl
The report deals with the noise impact of transportation systems and methods that can be used for lessening that impact. An introductory discussion of the physics of noise and noise measurement is given to help the reader in understanding how the noise impact is analyzed.
Environmental Report - National League of Cities - Can City Hall Buy Peace and Quiet?
Handbook for Regional Noise Programs
This handbook is intended as a working reference manual for Environmental Protection Agency region program managers and staff personnel. A loose leaf format is utilized, thereby allowing for periodic update. No information is contained herein which has not been previously disseminated to the regions in a different format. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to delineate all activities of the EPA Office of Noise Abatement and Control (referred to as ABN); this information is available to the regions in the work plans and reports which are forwarded periodically. This guide contains eleven sections. Bibliographic references are given throughout; appendices include a glossary of terms, a list of EPA noise documents, a compilation of ordinances, and a schedule of EPA noise workshops. Many different sources were utilized in the preparation of this guide. Among the most important were the various EPA technical documents and the manual, prepared by Dr. W.S. Gatley and Mr. E.F. Frye, entitled "Regulation of Noise in Urban Areas."
Environmental Report - National League of Cities - Cities Cut Noise Levels With 'Buy Quiet' Programs
Noise Control Ordinance Development: A Guidebook for Local Officials
The future of America's cities depends on how effectively they can compete as desirable places in which to live and work. Much of their attractiveness is determined by the quality of their environment. Noise is adversely affecting the quality of urban life and is a threat to the public health, safety, and welfare of our cities' residents. NLC is committed to assisting communities throughout the United States in resolving their various noise problems through the Community and Airport ECHO Program, by promoting the "Buy Quiet" program, and by preparing this publication to emphasize the important steps that a community should take in developing a noise control ordinance. This publication is a step-by-step guide that local officials can use as they undertake the ordinance development process.
Helicopter Noise Characteristics for Heliport Planning - Technical Report
Dwight E. Bishop
Noise data and simplified procedures are presented for estimating the percieved noise levels produced by current civil and military helicopters (piston- and turbine-powered) during takeoff, landing, flyover and hover operations. Noise data and procedures are also presented for comparing helicopter noise with other vehicle noise and with ambient noise found in typical urban and suburban areas. The procedures permit an assessment of the compatibility of helicopter noise with typical land uses near heliports. Generalized helicopter noise data are presented in the form of noise contours and in perceived noise level distance charts for different helicopter categories. The generalized noise charts are based upon measurements of a number of military and civil aircraft. Analysis of these measurements, discussed in Appendix A, shows that: a) for most helicopters the spread in perceived noise levels for takeoff, landing, flyover and hover operations is of the order of 5 dB or less, a spread in noise levels much less than encountered for fixed-wing aircraft. b) piston-powered helicopters are noisier than turbine-powered helicopters of comparable size. No consistent difference in noise levels between single and dual rotor helicopters was noted. c) perceived noise levels for turbine-powered helicopters show greater changes with size of aircraft than do noise levels for piston-powered helicopters. d) for planning purposes, noise radiation from helicopters can be assumed to be non-directional in both vertical and horizontal planes.
Interim Report by Federal City Council Task Force on National Airport
In January, 1980, U.S. Department of Transportation Secretary Goldschmidt proposed operating rules for National Airport which would sharply limit its growth, reduce noise, alter the mix of aircraft, eliminate late night operations, and possibly increase the number of cities served. The purpose of these rules and the accompanying environmental impact assessment was to define operating limits which will allow master planning for physical improvement of the Airport's facilities. The Federal City Council offered to play a facilitating role in bringing about some consensus on the Airport's future. Since early this year, a Task Force of forty Council members has been involved in an intensive examination of the issues and options. More than two dozen meetings have been held with governmental officials and representatives of citizen groups, private aircraft owners and operators, and airline organizations. Orientation visits have been made to the three major regional airports and 900 pages of background material have been reviewed. The Task Force has focused on the proposed rules, preliminary plans for physical redevelopment and financeing alternatives. As a result of this review, the Task Force believes the FAA's proposed rules for National Airport's operation reasonably accommodate the competing interests at stake - significantly reducing noise while setting the stage for more convenient passenger service. A passenger ceiling should be set somewhere between 16 and 18 million passengers annually. National should primarily serve short haul traffic from relatively nearby cities. When two flights are competing for the same slot, the shorter flight should have priority. To maintain the new annual limit in the face of increasing demand, the frequency of major airline flights should be reduced through cutbacks in slot allocations and admittance of wide-bodied aircraft, after demonstration of their ability to operate safely at National under adverse weather conditions. Commuter aircraft, generally serving close-in communities, should be awarded up to seven additional slots on an as-needed basis. Construction of additional general aviation facilities at Dulles should be expedited and shared use of existing facilities at Andrews AFB, Davison Airfield, and the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center should be explored. The proposed 10:30 p.m. closing time for all aircraft operations should be implemented, although scheduled aircraft that depart in time to land at National before 10:30 but are delayed enroute should be allowed to land. The Task Force believes the perimeter rule is probably no longer necessary because airplane limitations, the annual passenger limit, fewer airline slots, and a short haul preference rule - if adopted - will serve to limit traffic in to the Airport. If one is to be kept, however, the existing 650 mile perimeter with seven grand-fathered exemptions is a reasonable one, as demand sometimes already exceeds the number of available slots. Improvements in the physical condition of Airport facilities to better accommodate both aircraft and passengers should be made as quickly as possible, with costs recovered over time through user charges.
Wyle Research Report WCR 75-2 - Community Noise Countermeasures Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Robert Rackl; Louis Sutherland; Jack Swing
The objective of this study is to provide supporting informations for use in formulating motor vehicle and higway noise policies within an overall national policy of community noise abatement. In the course of the research work, a comprehensive community noise exposure model capable of evaluating and optimizing noise reduction countermeasures, especially as related to ground transportation noise sources, has been developed. The model has been evaluated for a defined future time period (1978), and refined on an actual experimental city (Spokane, Washington) which has been selected as a typical U.S. city from a noise exposure standpoint. Hence, results obtained in the analysis conducted for Spokane are applicable to a broad category of U.S. cities, with certain specific cautions, which are further defined later.
First Report on the Federal Urban Noise Initiative
In his Environmental Message to the Congress on August 2, 1979, President Carter announced a new Urban Noise Initiative. The Initiative established an Interagency Connittee on Urban Noise to carry out a five point urban noise program: 1. Initiation of programs to achieve soundproofing and weatherization of noise-sensitive buildings such as schools and hospitals. 2. Promotion of the use og quiet-design features in the planning, design and operation of proposed urban transportation projects. 3. Encouragement of noise-sensitive developments, such as housing, to be located away from major noise sources. 4. Help to Federal, state and local agencies to buy equipment and products. 5. Support of neighborhood self-reliance efforts to address local noise problems. Important progress has been made since the Presidents' Message was issued. The purpose of this report is to briefly indicate those actions which have been taken and plans for future action. It fulfills the President's requirement for a report by February 1, 1980.
Impact of Noise on People
Aviation noise significantly impacts approximately six million people in urban areas. In an effort to explain the impact of noise on these citizens, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) presents this brochure. Included are aircraft noise indices, information on humna response to noise, and criteria for land use controls. Additionally, hearing damage and occupational health standards for noise are described. FAA presents this information in an effort to enhance public understanding of the impact of noise on people and to answer many questions that typically arise.
Tilted Parallel Barrier Program - Application and Verification
Van M. Lee; Robert A Michalove; Simon Slutsky
There are increasing situations in the nation's urban and suburban highway system where noise barriers are considered to protect residences on both sides of a roadway. The scheme if two vertical parallel barrier walls constitutes the parallel barrier problem where in addition to the sound waves that reach the reciever by diffraction over the near barrier, additional sound waves caused by complex pavement-barrier-ground reflection and diffraction mechanisms can reach the reciever, thus degrading the effectiveness of the near barrier. This paper presents the results of a first application of the Tilted Parallel Barrier Program (TPBP) to a highway project and attempts to verify aspects of the model through comparisons with data existing inthe literature. The model provides excellent agreement for the classical problem of an impedance boundary. It also meets reasonable expectations for parallel vertical, tilted parallel, and parallel absorptive barrier performance where a frequency dependent optimum design can be selected.
Noise: A Challenge to Cities
Municipal/State Noise Ordinances - Reprinted with Permission of "Sound & Vibration" Magazine
The enactment of city noise ordinances continues to grow in the United States. Compiled below is the current list of 652 municipalities with noise regulations, up 21% over the 1975 figure of 539. These ordinances now affect a combined population of over 67 million people. There is a continuing interest in enacting legislation with quantitative noise emission limits which replace non-quantitative or general nuisance provisions...