EPA Document Collection

About the EPA document collection held by the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse.

Subject Index: A B C E G H I L M O P R S T U W
Title Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W #

Single page lists: authors subjects titles
Most useful EPA documents


Title Index

S. 1204 (Report No. 97-110) - To amend the Noise Control Act of 1972 as amended by the Quiet Communities Act of 1978
May 1981
PDF

SAE Highway Tire Noise Symposium - Proceedings
PDF

Safety Solutions Catalog - Hearing/Head/Eye/Face Protection Products
PDF

San Diego, California - Case History of a Municipal Noise Control Program
November 1978
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This case history of the noise control program of San Diego, California, is one of four supporting an outreach technical assistance program, Each Community Helps Others (ECHO), of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The four case-history studies will provide the ECHO Program - whose goal is to have viable and quantitative noise control ordinances in 400 communities and 40 states throughout the United States by 1985 - with the documented experience of communities that already have an on-going, successful, and outstanding noise control program.

San Francisco International Airport - 1978 Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) 30/40
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School Hearing Test Program
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This document contains a suggested dissemination plan for your school system's Hearing Test Noise Education Program. The strategy that follows and suggested letters from your Superintendent of Schools to the involved key people were designed as a possible aid to help implement this program. Since various school system's modes of operations vary, this plan may be used as appropriate in your system. Also included is a separate section for teachers with teaching material and a sample quiz. We have included a program evaluation form that could provide us with meaningful information on the use of these materials, if your coordinator or designated school representative could take the time to provide us with this information. We appreciate your interest and assistance in implementing this program.

The Seattle Times - Wanted: Muffled machines with sounds of near-silence
May 1982
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Seattle-Tacoma International Airport - 1978 Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) 30/40
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Second National Conference on General Aviation Airport Noise and Land Use Planning Summary of Proceedings
Edited by John Schettino; Michael Staiano
April 1982
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This report constitutes the proceedings of the three day Second National Conference on General Aviation Airport Noise and Land Use Planning. The main purpose of the Conference was to continue the dialogue initiated at the First National Conference which took place in October of 1979 in Atlanta, Georgia. The emphasis in this conference was the implementation of solutions at the State and local level. Another objective of the Conference was to develop a document that would be useful to those dealing with general aviation airport noise and land-use planning. This report is intended to serve this purpose. The attendees at this Conference showed a greater awareness of the general aviation airport noise situation than at the first Conference. The airport operators and the planners have become more knowledgable in this area, perhaps due, in part, to AECLUC studies at several general aviation airports.

Seismic Effects of Quarry Blasting
J.R. Thoenen; S.L. Windes
PDF

Sheet Metal Shop Noise Control Study at the Charleston Naval Shipyard
R. Bruce; P. Jensen; C. Jokel; J. Lehr; E. Wood
September 1981
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This report contains an evaluation of noise conditions in the sheet metal shop at the Charleston Naval Shipyard in Charleston, South Carolina (CNSY Shop 17). The study was performed during 1978. The evaluation is based on noise exposure data for full-time workers in Shop 17 and an analysis of noise emissions of the individual machine types used in the shop. Noise emission data are presented for the following equipment types: Band saws, Friction saws, Pneumatic grinders, Electric routers, Square sheers, Nibblers, Belt sanders, Punch presses (manually and numerically controlled), Press brakes, Cutoff saws, Spot welders, Drill presses, Pneumatic drills, and Electric drills.

Short Term Effects of Aircraft Overflights on Outdoor Recreationists in Three Wildernesses
Sanford Fidell; Laura Silvati; Barbara Tabachnick; Richard Howe; Karl S. Pearsons; Richard C. Knopf; James Gramann; Thomas Buchanan
April 1992
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This report describes an on-site social survey of te short term effects of aircraft overflights on visitors to three Forest Service wildernesses. Two prior reports (Fidell, Tabachnick, and Silvati, 1990a and 1990b) contain the detailed rationale for this study. A companion report (Tabachnick, Fidell, Silvati, Knopf, Gramann, and Buchanan, 1991) describes a related telephone interview study. These studies were undertaken principally to support preparation of a Forest Service report to Congress mandated by Section 5(a) of Public Law 100-91. Three Forest Service wildernesses were purposively selected for study on the basis of two primary and five secondary criteria. The major criteria were levels of visitor use and aircraft overflight exposure. Wildernesses were also selected to provide a range of ambient sound levels, ecotypes, visitor activities, day and overnight use, and exposure to helicopters as well as fixed wing aircraft. Interviewing was conducted during peak visitor seasons at three wildernesses (Golden Trout in California, Cohutta in Georgia, and Superstition in Arizona). Attempts were made to exhaustively interview visitors during the data collection periods in each wilderness. Personal interviews of visitors and extensive acoustic measurements were conducted simultaneously. Visitors were interviewed individually and in groups by means of a short, verbally administered questionnaire. A total of 920 interviews was completed: 185 in Golden Trout, 343 in Cohutta and 392 in Superstition Wildernesses. The lowest completion rate was 96%. No reliable differences were observed between visitors who granted interviews and those who did not. Respondents in the three wildernesses were similar in gender distribution, degree of overall enjoyment of their visits, and intention to return to the wilderness. Respondents interviewed in different wildernesses differed with respect to all other variables investigated, including age distribution, size of group, number of previous visits, activities, aspects of their visits they liked most and least, type of aircraft noticed, annoyance due to the sight and sound of aircraft, and type of aircraft found most annoying to hear. Despite difficulties in estimating recreationists' personal noise exposure, it was possible to construct a relationship between estimated aircraft noise exposure and annoyance due to the sound of aircraft.This relationship was stronger than that observed between self-reports of observed number of aircraft overflights and annoyance, and that between exposure to aircraft and reported overall enjoyment. Annoyance due to aircraft noise, although closely related to exposure, was not reliably predictable from a set of nonaircraft-related items. Noticeability of aircraft was not related to visitor activities. Once they noticed aircraft, visitors engaged in water- or stock-related activities tended to be more annoyed by aircraft overflights than visitors who did not engage in these activities. Overall enjoyment of visits to wildernesses was unrelated to any other variable, as was intention to revisit the wilderness. Because virtually all respondents reported that they enjoyed their visits and intended to return, such measures offer little opportunity to assess the impact of aircraft overflights on recreationists. These results indicate that annoyance is a more practical measure of the impact of aircraft overflights on recreationists than more global measures of satisfaction or behavioral intent. Current means of measureing exposure cannot, however, support the precise et cost-effective estimates of dosage-response relationships needed for management purposes.

SI Units and Recommendations for the Use of Their Multiples and of Cetain Other Units
February 1973
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This International Standard consists of two parts. In the first part (sections 2 and 3), the International System of Units is described. In the second part (sections 4 and 5, and the Annex) selected decimal multiples and submultiples of the SI units are recommended for general use, and certain other units are given which may be used with the International System of Units.

Simplified Noise Strategy Manual
Mones E. Hawley
July 1981
PDF

This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This manual's objectives are the same as those described in the "Strategy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program." It provides however a simplified and manual system for planning the noise control strategy for abating a community's noise problems. It assists comunitite in determining, in an objective manner, the efficient allocation of funds for reducing the adverse effects of noise in their community. By following a step-by-step written procedure, a noise planner can be assisted in selecting the most cost-effective noise abatement measures and the amount of money which should be spent on each. The primary criterion for optimization is based on economic and acoustical data gathered in the community.

Six Indices for Predicting Speech Interference Within Aircraft
Donald C. Gasaway
December 1970
PDF

Acoustic noise within aircraft during flight often causes some degree of interference with aural communication. Several methods have been used ove the years to identify and predict degrees of speech interference. Six of these methods are discussed: four involve octave-band averaging; two use frequency weighting. The assessment is based on application of each of the six indices to noise levels measured within the cockpits of 191 fixed-wing and 58 rotary-wing aircraft, grouped into 11 categories by engine type. Equivalent speech interference levels obtained from the use of each of the six indices are provided for the acoustic spectra developed for the 11 classes of vehicles. The operational considerations which influence speech interference values are described. Noise attenuation provided by headset devices commonly used by Air Force aircrew members is shown for different groups of noise spectra. Criteria are given for evaluating protected and unprotected exposures to noise that compromise communications.

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
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The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1.Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social.

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
PDF

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1.Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social.

The Social Impact of Noise
December 1971
PDF

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Using this definition it is evident that noise can be considered as having an important influence on the health of man. Because of its pervasive influence in all settings, activities and walks of life it has been often cited as a major source of annoyance as well as a threat to physical and mental health. For most people the usual consequences of noise are associated with interference with listening to speech or other sounds, distraction at home and on the job, disturbance of rest and sleep, and disruption of recreational pursuits. All of the foregoing can be considered components of the quality of life. In dealing with the social impact of noise, this report is divided into several sections: 1. Overview 2. Extent of problem - Changing Scope of Problem 3. Effects of Noise 3.1 Medical 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Social

Some Practical Information on Noise and Hearing Protection
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Sound & Noise
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The purpose of this booklet is to examine some of the basic facts relating to the science of sound, and to discuss various approaches toward controlling noise.

Sound Advice - A Volunteer Noise Abatement Program - Organizer's/Counselor's Guide
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In neighborhoods across the country, people are realizing that noise is a serious matter, and that practical steps are available to reduce noise. Mnay communities have been successful in reducing or eliminating noise problems. The success is usually the result of many individuals and groups working together. As an organizer of a noise abatement program, you can help to bring interested persons together to control or reduce noise. "Sound Advice" is a noise abatement program which cna help to make you community a healthier and better place to live. "Sound Advice" will focus on the use of older persons as volunteers in the noise abatement program. Older Americans are an excellent resource for the program. Many older persons have the time and interest in the community that are required for volunteer noise counselors. Older persons also have various skills from past work or volunteer activities which can be put to use in the campaign against noise. This guide will help concerned individuals who want to organize a noise abatement program in their community. Suggestions are given for establishing a volunteer noise counselor program and for recruiting and working with volunteers. Also included are samples of organizational materials and resource materials for use in establishing your program.

Sound Advice: A Volunteer Noise Counselor's Guide
PDF

In neighborhoods across the country, people are realizing that noise is a serious matter, and that practical steps are available to reduce noise. Mnay communities have been successful in reducing or eliminating noise problems. The success is usually the result of many individuals and groups working together. As a volunteer noise counselor, you can work with other volunteers to control or reduce noise. "Sound Advice" is a noise abatement program which can help to make your community a healthier and better place to live. This handbook will help volunteers interested in acting as noise counselors in a community noise abatement program. It explains the reasons for a noise abatement program, the role of the noise counselor, and some of the techniques a noise counselor can use to reduce neighborhood noise. Also included is an appendix to help locate resource materials and key people in the community.

Sound Advice: A Volunteer Organizer's Guide
PDF

In neighborhoods across the country, people are realizing that noise is a serious matter, and that practical steps are available to reduce noise. Mnay communities have been successful in reducing or eliminating noise problems. The success is usually the result of many individuals and groups working together. As an organizer of a noise abatement program, you can help to bring interested persons together to control or reduce noise. "Sound Advice" is a noise abatement program which cna help to make you community a healthier and better place to live. "Sound Advice" will focus on the use of older persons as volunteers in the noise abatement program. Older Americans are an excellent resource for the program. Many older persons have the time and interest in the community that are required for volunteer noise counselors. Older persons also have various skills from past work or volunteer activities which can be put to use in the campaign against noise. This guide will help concerned individuals who want to organize a noise abatement program in their community. Suggestions are given for establishing a volunteer noise counselor program and for recruiting and working with volunteers. Also included are samples of organizational materials and resource materials for use in establishing your program.

Sound and Hearing
Martin E. Rosenberg
June 1905
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Scientific enquiry into the sense of hearing is as deeply rooted in engineering and physics as in anatomy, physiology and psychology. Each approach has brought its own terminology and concepts and it is sometimes difficult for the non-specialist to obtain a clear picture of the subject. This book is a survey of several of the avenues of interest concerned with the sense of hearing and is intended to clarify some of the established principles. The book is directed to students of medicine and biology, but I think it will be of interest to engineers and possibly those involved in the creative applications of sound.

Sound and Vibration
December 1979
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Sound Control Provisions Within Building Codes
Richard L. Katz
June 1974
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The purpose of this report is to review the status of current and future noise control provisions withint the various domestic governmental levels, and at the national level internationally. In many cases, direct comparisons are made. This report will also deal with some of the effects of unwanted sound upon people and some of the causes of complaints from occupants in multifamily dwellings experiencing insufficient noise control.

Sound Exposure Level Versus Distance Curves for Civil Aircraft
Dwight E. Bishop; John F. Mills; Jane M. Beckmann
February 1976
PDF

This report provides sound exposure level (SEL) data for civil aircraft in a form useful for day/night average level (DNL) calculations. The SEL data are presented in tabular form in this report; the report also briefly summarizes the data sources and technical analyses used in developing the noise data. Noise data are included for all major current civil transport and business jet aircraft and for most general aviation aircraft. Data are also provided for possible retrofit of low bypass ratio (LBPR) turbofan aircraft with acoustically lined nacelles. As in the companion report which presents effective perceived noise level versus distance curves for civil aircraft, the correlation of noise level data with aircraft operations (in terms of aircraft speed and engine operating parameters) varies in detail - from specific curves for different engine parameters and speeds for major civil transport aircraft, to generalized noise curves for rather broad categories of propeller aircraft. Section II presents the noise data. Section III describes the sources of noise data, outlines analysis methods, and discusses some of the technical problems involved in developing the noise curves.

Sound Exposure Level Versus Distance Curves for Civil Aircraft
Dwight E. Bishop; John F. Mills; Jane M. Beckmann
October 1974
PDF

This report provides sound exposure level (SEL) data for civil aircraft in a form useful for day/night average level (DNL) calculations. The SEL data are presented in tabular form in this report; the report also briefly summarizes the data sources and technical analyses used in developing the noise data. Noise data are included for all major current civil transport and business jet aircraft and for most general aviation aircraft. Data are also provided for possible retrofit of 4-engine low bypass ratio (LBPR) turbofan aircraft with acoustically lined nacelles. As in the companion report which presents effective perceived noise level versus distance curves for civil aircraft, the correlation of noise level data with aircraft operations (in terms of aircraft speed and engine operating parameters) varies in detail - from specific curves for different engine parameters and speeds for major civil transport aircraft, to generalized noise curves for rather broad categories of propeller aircraft. Section II presents the noise data. Section III describes the sources of noise data, outlines analysis methods, and discusses some of the technical problems involved in developing the noise curves.

Sound Exposure Levels (SEL) Chart for Civil Jet Transport Aircraft Takeoffs Using ATA Procedures (Adopted December 1976)
D.E. Bishop; H. Siedman; D.Q. Walker
January 1978
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EPA 550/9-77-450, presented a method for the manual calculation of day-night average sound levels (Ldn) due to aircraft operations. Information was presented for different aircraft and different operational procedures. Addendum I presents the additional information needed to predict the noise levels produced by aircraft which utilize the Air Transport Association (ATA) procedures which were adopted December 1976.

Sound Exposure Levels (SEL) Chart for Civil Jet Transport Aircraft Takeoffs Using ATA Procedures (Adopted December 1976)
D.E. Bishop; H. Siedman; D.Q. Walker
January 1978
PDF

EPA 550/9-77-450, presented a method for the manual calculation of day-night average sound levels (Ldn) due to aircraft operations. Information was presented for different aircraft and different operational procedures. Addendum I presents the additional information needed to predict the Noise levels produced by aircraft which utilize the Air Transport Association (ATA) procedures which were adopted December 1976.

Sound Insulation of Wall and Floor Constructions
February 1955
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Sound Insulation of Wall, Floor, and Door Constructions
Raymond D. Berendt; George E. Winzer
November 1964
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Sound Levels From Oil and Gas Exploration Activities
James D. Foch; Richard E. Burks
PDF

Data from a sound measurement survey consucted in 1981 within and in the vicinity of Glacier National park are analyzed and presented. Measurements were made of oil and gas seismic exploration activities in Flathead National Forest and Helena National Forest, including sounds from above ground blasts, helicopters and associated activities. Typical reference sound levels are identified for above ground blasts and helicopters, and theoretical procedures for estimating their propagation are developed, considering terrain and meteorological conditions characteristic of Glacier National Park. A sample application of the prediction method shows sound levels from above ground blasts outside the Park remain significantly above ambient levels at locations inside the Park for long durations. These results corroborate anecdotal reports and biological studies which indicate that sound from oil and gas exploration activities can be heard well inside the Park and could be affecting sensitive wildlife populations in the area. Recommendations for additional monitoring and modeling are outlined.

Sound Measurement and Analysis Instrumentation - Quest Electronics
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Sound Procedures for Measuring Highway Noise: Final Report
William Bowlby
August 1981
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This revised manual presents noise measurement procedures for use by Federal, State, or local transportation departments. Methods are included for the measurement of traffic/existing sound levels, vehicle sound levels, barrier field insertion loss, non-traffic noise source sound levels, construction equipment noise, building noise reduction, and worker noise exposure. The required instrumentation, test site restrictions, step by step measurement procedures, and computational methods are included. This revision incorporates two measurement procedures issued after the interim report was published: "Determination of Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels," Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Report No. FHWA-OEP/HEV-78-1, which replaces chapter 4, and "Determination of Noise Barrier Effectiveness," FHWA Report No. FHWA-OEP/HEV-80-1, which replaces chapter 5.

Sound Reduction Properties of Concrete Masonry Walls
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Sound Transmission Through Building Structures - Review and Recommendations for Research
Ben H. Sharp; Peter K. Kasper; Mark L. Montroll
June 1980
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This report presents a critical review of the status of technology in sound transmission through building structures, and identifies specific areas for further research. The approach taken in the review follows the steps involved in the design process, namely, prediction, measurement, and evaluation. Priorities for further research are based on the potential for achieving the following objectives: to develop new technology to reduce the cost of noise control in buildings; to increase confidence that designs will provide the required acoustical privacy; and to identify and apply sound isolation techniques that reduce energy consumption.

Soundings a current awareness bulletin on noise
February 1980
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Sounds Alive - A Noise Workbook
Donna McCord Dickman
December 1979
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Soviet Noise Research Literature
April 1974
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Speech Levels in Various Noise Environments
Karl S. Pearsons; Ricarda L. Bennett; Sanford Fidell
May 1977
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Research on speech level measurements was conducted under laboratory and non-laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to determine average speech levels used by people when conversing in different levels of background noise. The non-laboratory or real-life environments where speech was recorded were: high school classrooms, homes, hospitals, department stores, trains and commercial aircraft. Briefly, the results of speech measurements at schools confirmed that teachers in typical classroom situations speak at a consistently higher level (67-78 dB at one meter) than in face-to-face conversation. Further, their vocal effort increased at the rate of 1 dB/dB increase in background noise which ranged from 45 to 55 dB. The speech levels recorded in face-to-face conversation were lower, averaging 55 dB at 1 meter for ambient levels less than 48 dB. But, as the background level increased above 48 dB to 70 dB, people correspondingly raised their voice levels up to 67 dB at the rate of 0.6 dB/dB as the ambient increased. It was also noted that for background levels less than 45 dB. speech levels measured at the listener's ear - disregarding distance between talkers - was also 55 dB. The laboratory portion of the study was conducted in an anechoic chamber. The analysis of approximately 100 observers for four varied speech instructions ("Speak in a normal, raised, loud, and shout voice") showed an orderly progression in level, and shift in spectral emphasis as voice levels increased. A comparison of male and female voice levels for the speech categories normal and raised yielded minimal differences, thus negating conclusions by other researchers that background levels should be lowered to accomodate female speech. This report concludes with recommended background levels to achieve speech intelligibility for the various environments investigated in this study.

Staff Resources for Noise Control
William F. Hagan
March 1978
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Standards on Noise Measurements, Rating Schemes, and Definitions: A Compilation
Thomas L. Quindry
April 1976
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This compilation deals with material assembled from the various standards, industrial and trade organizations, or technical and scientific societies concerned with acoustics. There has been no attempt to review or evaluate the standards, but rather just to list documents covering measurement techniques, calibration methods, definitions, rating schemes, and equipment and product specifications concerned with noise. Those standards dealing solely with ultrasonics, audio equipment, or shock and vibration have not generally been included. The paragraphs describing the standards give a brief summary of intent and/or scope of the standard. In some cases the paragraph is the official description of the standard as issued by the organization or society promulgating the standard, while in others the paragraph merely describes the intent of the standard. Proposed standards are also listed where available. Not listed are proposed revisions of current standards and those which must be reapproved to remain in effect. For the convenience of those readers wishing to purchase copies of standards, names and addresses for the various organizations and/or societies are provided. Federal Regulations directly involving noise measurements are given in Appendix A. Appendix B lists active committees for each organization and names and addresses of appropriate committee chairmen or technical contacts. This compilation includes all information available as of January 1, 1976.

The Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America
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The Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, developed as a public service, has been delegated by the Executive Council to the Society's Committee on Standards (ASACOS). The decisions of this committee are carried out through a Standards Secretariat, headed by a Standards Manager. In order to define terminology and develop specifications and standard practices in acoustics, the standards program was established nearly fifty years ago. In 1932, the Acoustical Society of America asked the American Standards Association to initiate a standardization project on acoustical measurement and terminology. That was done, and the Acoustical Society was designated as the sponsor of the new committee, designated Z24.

State and Local Environmental Noise Control: 1980 Survey Report
December 1981
PDF

The 1980 state and local environmental noise survey is the fourth in a series of noise control assessments conducted in 1971, 1974 and 1978 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The survey was designed to determine the status of noise control programs in states and cities with over 20,000 population. Eighty-two percent of the states and 58% of the 1200 cities surveyed returned questionnaires. The results of the survey are arranged in the following sections and subsequent chapters of the report: -Public Awareness of Noise, -Legislation and Enforcement, -Noise Control Programs, -State and Local Resources, -EPA's Technical Assistance Program.

State and Local Guidance Manual for Police: Motor Vehicle Noise Enforcement
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This guidance manual for state and local police officers and law enforcement personnel was prepared for the Office of Noise Abatement and Control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency as part of its mandate under the Noise Control Act (P.L. 92-574, 42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq. Supp. 1978). The purpose of the manual is to provide law enforcement personnel with the necessary technical skills to enforce State and Local Motor Vehicle Noise Laws. The proper enforcement of motor vehicle noise violations requires the noise enforcement officer to develop specific technical skills, both in the use of noise measuring equipment as well as in the application of police practice to noise enforcement officer is utilizing a sound level meter to measure the violation.

State and Local Noise Control Activities - 1977-1978
February 1980
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This report presents the third assessment conducted under the policy of periodically determining the status of State and local noise control efforts. A survey, conducted in 1978, was the major component of this assessment. It was intended to cover all States and teritories and 824 communities in the U.S. with populations greater than 25,000. Responses were obtained from 40 States and 562 communities.

State and Local Noise Control Activities 1977-1978
May 1979
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.This report presents the third assessment conducted unde the policy of periodically determining the status of State and local noise control efforts. A survey, conducted in 1978, was the major component of this assessment. It was intended to cover all State and territories and 824 communities in the U.S. with populations greater than 25,000. Responses were obtained from 40 States, and 562 communities.

State and Local Noise Control Activities 1977-1978
April 1979
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State and Local Noise Enforcement Legal Memoranda
April 1980
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The legal memoranda included in this document address some of the more prevalent enforcement issues which have arisen in connection with State and local noise control activities. This collection of legal memoranda is organized according to the following two distinct phases of noise control activities: (1) ordinance drafting; (2) prosecution.

State and Municipal Noise Control Activities 1973-1974
ONAC
January 1976
PDF

Presented is an assessment of 1973-1974 State and municipal environment noise control efforts based on an EPA survey of States and municipalities with population greater than 75,000. This assessment is designed to provide an overall perspective of the composition and scope of noise control efforts. Areas covered are: organization and orientation of noise control efforts, enforcement, budgetary data, personnel, equipment, program problems and applications of technical assistance. The survey results have been used by EPA/ONAC as a guide in the present technical assistance program. This document has been prepared primarily as a planning and reference guide for public administrators and other officials engaged in the development and implementation of environmental noise control programs.

State and Municipal Non-Occupational Noise Programs
December 1971
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This document is a report on state and municipal government non-occupational noise abatement and control programs prepared from information obtained in response to a questionnaire disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The questionnaire and a letter of inquiry were part of a study to establish the national need for legislation and research concerning noise abatement and control. They were forwarded by the EPA Administrator to the governors of each state (including Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands) and the mayors of the 153 cities having populations, as of 1970, of 100,000 or more. The questionnaire requested information concerning the level and scope of existing and planned noise abatement and control programs. It furthermore solicited opinions on what additional support programs could be developed by the Federal government. Described herein are the replies of 114 mayors and of 41 governors.

State of California Department of Health and Services Response to ONAC Docket 81-02 (Medium and Heavy Trucks) ANR-490
April 1981
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State of California DOT Clarification of Opposing Deferral
May 1981
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State of California DOT Response to ONAC Docket 81-02 (Medium and Heavy Trucks)
March 1981
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State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection - Comments on Proposed Rescinding of 80 dB Truck Noise Standard
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State of Delaware Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Control Response to ONAC Docket 81-02 (Medium and Heavy Trucks_ ANR-490
April 1981
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State/Local Programs and Capability for Noise Control
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Prior to the establishment of EPA's Office of Noise Abatement and Control and the passage of Federal noise control legislation, many cities and States had in place varying types of legislation and were implementing programs to control noise within their jurisdictions. In 1971, before the passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972, an EPA questionnaire was completed by 114 cities with populations over 100,000 and by 41 States. Although the responses often indicated relatively minimal or fragmented efforts to address the problem, twenty-two (22) States and sixty-one (61) of the cities had some legal authority and/or programs to control noise.

Statement by Dr. Alvin F. Meyer - United States Environmental Protection Agency Before the Government Regulation Subcommittee Senate Small Business Committee
May 1975
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On behalf of the United States Environmental Protection gency, the following information is submitted to the United States Senate Small Business Committee as background for its consideration in the regulation of hearing aids. This document is intended to provide a broad comprehensive view of noise pollution. It will highlight the most recent findings and literature in the field. The more relevant reports are submitted to the record in their industry.

Statement of Kenneth M. Meed - Aviation Noise: A National Policy is Needed
September 1990
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The Status of Noise Control in the United States: State and Local Governments
April 1978
PDF

The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the status of state and local noise control programs in the United States. To achieve this objective involves examining four elements. 1. Public Awareness 2. Legislation 3. Noise Control Program and 4. Recommendations.

The Status of Noise Control in the United States: State and Local Governments
Clifford R. Bragdon
April 1978
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Stephen E. Saunders Response to ONAC Docket 81-02 (Medium and Heavy Trucks) ANR-490
April 1981
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Structureborne Sound in Buildings: Needed Practical Research in Light of the Current State of the Art
Eric E. Unger
June 1980
PDF

An overview of the current state-of-the-art of structureborne sound in buildings is presented. A general introduction to the field of structureborne sound is included with a discussion of important phenomena. Summaries of recent investigations described in the technical literature are discussed relevant to excitation and local response, propagation, radiation, and control of structureborne sound in buildings. Topics for future research in structureborne sound in buildings are presented based upon this review. An annotated bibliography of recent investigations is appended.

Studies in Urban Transportation - Transportation Systems: Noise Generation and Abatement
Frank B. Hartl
February 1974
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The report deals with the noise impact of transportation systems and methods that can be used for lessening that impact. An introductory discussion of the physics of noise and noise measurement is given to help the reader in understanding how the noise impact is analyzed.

A Study of Airports - Design, Art & Architecture
June 1905
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This document has been prepared as part of the FAA's program to encourage improved design, art, and architecture in aviation facilities.

Study of Soundproofing Public Buildings Near Airports
April 1977
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Pursuant to Special Studies, Section 26(3) under Appendix B, of Airport and Airway Development Act Amendments of 1976, Public Law 94-353, this study was undertaken to develop the data and procedures which can be used to determine the feasibility, practicability and costs of soundproofing public buildings near airports. Costing of soundproofing public airports includes: schools, hospitals, and public health facilities near airports.

A Study of Soundproofing Requirements for Residences Adjacent to Commercial Airports
Ben H. Sharp; Vijay K. Kahii; Eric Stusnick
August 1981
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As part of an overall systems program being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to examine options for the reduction of aircraft noise impact, this study was conducted to estimate the costs of soundproofing dwellings within the Ldn 65 noise contours at major U.S. commercial airports. The goal of the study is to achieve an interior sound level of Ldn 45 dB. The nation was divided into eleven regions, each one incorporating areas of similar dwelling construction. In this way, it was possible to specify the noise reduction of dwellings on a regional basis, taking local features into account. To determine the distribution of dwelling types in each region, and to obtain detailed information on local dwelling characteristics that affect noise reduction, field surveys were conducted at one airport in each region. The airports surveyed were selected on the basis that the local dwelling characteristics were representative of the respective region. The information obtained was used to identify the types of modifications most suitable for soundproofing dwellings in each region. The selection of soundproofing modifications required for construction elements in each dwelling category in each region was madeusng a computerized cost optimization procedure to achieve the interior noise criteria at the least cost. The costs for adding a ventilation system, required to replace the natural ventilation that occurs through leaks in the dwelling structure, were then added to the costs for structural modifications to provide an overall cost for soundproofing.

A Study to Minimize Noise Associated with Construction Activity
January 1982
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the noise associated with the construction of Broadway Plaza and identify selected methods to mitigate noise related impacts. The work program selected to achieve these aims consistes od several elements: - Determination of existing noise levels within the project area. - Calculation of construction noise levels. - Identification and evaluation if mitigation techniques to reduce construction noise.

Substrategy for Construction Noise Abatement
Paul U. Pawlik
August 1981
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This study outlines a national strategy to address construction site noise. After explaining the peculiar nature of construction-site noise and estimating the population exposed to high noise levels, the author presents viable methods to control such noise. It was found that in non-regulatory solutions are the best solution, after analyzing controls using criteria like: the effectiveness in reducing noise exposure, the speed with which effectiveness is obtained, the relative overall cost to contractors, and the proper place of primary responsibility.

Substrategy for Construction Site Noise Abatement
August 1980
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"Succinct Write-Up" - Rationale for Withdrawal of Wheel and Crawler Tractors, Pavement Breakers and Rock Drills as Major Sources of Noise
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Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations from Report to the President and Congress on Noise
December 1971
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In accordance with Title IV, PL 91-604, The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency conducted extensive research and held a series of public hearings on noise. As required by that Act, the Agency submitted to the President and the Congress a comprehensive "Report on Noise". The Introduction, Summary and Conclusions of the Report, and a listing of the 15 Technical Information Documents prepared as part of the efforts to develop the Report are contained in this pamphlet. Pending publication of the Report by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office; and of the Technical Information Documents by the National Technical Information Service (Dept. of Commerce), limited copies may be made available to those having an urgent need for the data therein. Requests should be directed to the Environmental Protection Agency (Office of Noise Abatement and Control), Washington, D.C. 20460.

Summary Index to Docket 81-02: Medium and Heavy Trucks
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Summary of Noise Emission Standards
April 1987
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Summary of Noise Programs in the Federal Government
December 1971
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Title IV of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (PL-91-604) required the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prepare a report on noise for submission to the President and Congress. This document is the basis for the section of that report devoted to Federal noise abatement and control programs ove the past two or three years. To collect the necessary data, the Director of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control on July 30, 1971 issued a request to all Federal agencies for information on their noise programs. A total of 17 agencies responded to the request. The letter of inquiry and report format are exhibited in Appendix A. It is recognized that this document represents information collected in response to a specific inquiry and is basically a byproduct of the much broader report to the President and Congress. However, in view of the varied and qualitative nature of the collected data, this report was prepared to better inform representatives of government and the private sector as to the significant achievements and directions of Federal noise programs.

Summary of Rating Definitions and Follow-Up Action
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Summary Report on the Sixth International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem
Alice H. Suter
November 1994
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Supporting Innovation: A Policy Study
Christopher T. Hill; Richard A. Andrews
October 1980
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The authors conclude, from a review of the theoretical and empirical literature and analysis of its application to the chemical industries, that the impact of TSCA on innovation is not predictable for a number of reasons, TSCA is as likely to stimulate innovation in some sectors as it is to discourage it in others. There are not enough reliable data to separate the effects of TSCA from historical trends and other factors. The report recommends a cluster of six policies (chosen from a group of thirty-three that were considered) that could be used together to offset some of the negative impacts on innovation if the government decides this is warranted. The recommended policies are: -EPA dissemination of chemical information (in the form of test results and labelling); -Instituting generic pre-manufacturing notifications for certain classes of new chemicals; -Government support for developing cheaper and more reliable test methods; - A subsidy for testing or compliance costs for new chemical development, either through a grant or a loan program; -"Fast track" pre-manufacturing reviews for safe chemicals or major innovations; -Government support for education and training of toxicologists and related preofessionals.

Surface Transportation - Information Group
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A Survey of Enforcement Practice with Respect to Noise Control Requirements in Building and Costs in a Number of European Countries
Theodore J. Schultz
November 1976
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The report introduces the problem of effective enforcement of noise control requirements in building codes throughout Europe, examines in detail two approaches of special interest and finally proposes a new approach to the endorsement of building code noise requirements.

A Survey of Enforcement Practice With Respect to Noise Control Requirements in Building Codes in a Number of European Countries
Theodore J. Schultz
July 1976
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Synopsis - March 29, 1984 Meeting
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In response to EPA's March 20, 1984 invitation to petitioners requesting a deferral of the 80 decibel noise emission standard for medium and heavy trucks, a meeting was held at 2:00 p.m., on March 29, 1984 at the Agency's heagquarters, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., Room 908 West Tower.

Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance
Theodore J. Schultz
March 1978
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Since noise was first recognized as a serious environmental pollutant, a number of social surveys have been conducted in order to assess the magnitude of the problem and to develop suitable noise ratings, such that, from a measurement of certain physical characteristics of community noise, one could reliably predict the community's subjective response to the noise. Recently, the author has reviewed the data from social surveys concerning the noise of aircraft, street traffic, expressway traffic, and railroads. Going back to the original published data, the various survey noise ratings were translated to day-night average sound level, and an independent judgment was made, where choices were possible, as in which respondents should be counted as "higly annoyed". The results of 11 of these surveys show a remarkable consistency. It is proposed that the average of these curves is the best currently available relationship for predicting community annoyance due to transportation noise of all kinds.