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Most useful EPA documents
Technical Analysis - Alignment of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Regulation
Since passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-574, 86 Stat. 1234) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been actively concerned with abatement and control of noise from medium and heavy trucks. Section 18 of the Act directed the Administrator to establish noise emission regulations for motor carriers engaged in interstate commerce. In October of 1974 the Agency promulgated an Interstate Motor Carrier (IMC) noise regulation (40 CFR 202). The regulation prescribed in-use operating noise limits, effective October 15, 1975, for all vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) in excess of 10,000 pounds. On September 8, 1975 the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), which has the Federal enforcement responsibility for the IMC regulation, issued a regulation (49 CFR 325) that prescribed test procedures for determining compliance with the (IMC) noise emission standards. The effective date of the DOT regulation also was October 15, 1975. A number of states and local jurisdictions have adopted and enforce the "in-use" noise standards of the IMC regulation as part of their individual noise control ordinances. Subsequent to the IMC regulation, the Agency promulgated a regulation (40 CFR 205) under the authority of Section 6 of the Act, that established not-to-exceed noise levels for medium and heavy trucks (MHT) manufactured after January 1, 1978. When the Agency promulgated the IMC regulation, it recognized that certain adjustments to the noise limits would be required in the future to ensure that the benefits anticipated from any "new product" regulation would be realized throughout the operating life of new trucks. This document analyzes the potential effects of aligning the levels of the "in-use" IMC regulation with the not-to-exceed levels of the "new-product" MHT regulation. In such an alignment, the IMC noise levels for trucks manufactured on or after January 1, 1978 would be consistent with the noise emission standards of the MHT regulation. Trucks manufactured prior to January 1, 1978 would not be affected. The analysis of the potential effects of aligning the IMC and MHT standards is based on extensive field data on in-use truck noise levels, supplemented by tire noise and vehicle noise degradation data that were not available when the IMC regulation was promulgated in 1974. The analysis assesses the degree of compliance with the IMC standards by interstate motor carrier vehicles. It further evaluates the change in the in-use noise levels of trucks since promulgation of the IMC regulation and the in-use noise levels of trucks manufactured after January 1, 1978. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the potential costs and benefits of an alignment of the IMC regulation with the MHT regulation for post-1977 trucks.
Technical Expertise in Support of Regulations of Noise From Transportation and Recreational Vehicles
Technique for Developing Noise Exposure Forecasts - Technical Report
A methodology called Noise Exposure Forecasts (NEF) is developed for describing aircraft noise exposure in the vicinity of the takeoff and approach flight paths of an airport. In support of this methodology an improved measure of the subjective response to aircraft flyover noise called Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) has been derived. This measure includes corrections for pure tone components and duration. Other elements necessary for the calculation of NEF are number of exposures and time of day, nef contours are translated into guidelines for compatible land use.
Techniques for Controlling Noise from Residential Heat Pumps
Dennis G. Ossenkop
At the request of the Washington State Department of Ecology Noise Section, the Environmental Protection Agency Region X Noise Program initiated a study to determine methods of reducing the noise impact of residential heat pumps. Two operating four-ton residential heat pumps were located by Mr. Fred Hallum of the General Electric Corporation, Seattle Central Air Conditioning Division office. Permission to construct and measure the acoustic effectiveness of a free standing heat pump enclosure was secured from Mr. William Sullivan of Seattle, Washington. The design and installation of the enclosure was accomplished through the cooperation of Earth Metrics, Inc., Palo Alto, California (under contract to EPA) and EPA Region X Noise Program personnel. Acoustic materials for the free standing enclosure were acquired through Mr. Harvey Britton of E.J. Bartells Company, Renton, Washington. The acoustic effectiveness of a second enclosure was measured at the residence of Mr. Robert Thornton of Gig Harbor, Washington.
Technology, Cost and Economic Impact Analysis for the Revision of the Interstate Motor Carrier Emission Regulations
Testing Procedures for Measuring Sound Transmission Loss Through Movable and Folding Walls
The purpose of this report is to establish a uniform set of practices fthe installation of the test specimen, the conduct of the test, and the certification of the results when operable walls are tested for sound transmission loss in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials Designation: E90-61 T, Tentative Recommended Practice for LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE SOUND TRANSMISSION LOSS OF BUILDING FLOORS AND WALLS, or its latest revision. Only this ASTM method of determining sound loss is to be used since it is universally accepted and understood test procedure.
Think Quietly About Noise
Tilted Parallel Barrier Program - Application and Verification
Van M. Lee; Robert A Michalove; Simon Slutsky
There are increasing situations in the nation's urban and suburban highway system where noise barriers are considered to protect residences on both sides of a roadway. The scheme if two vertical parallel barrier walls constitutes the parallel barrier problem where in addition to the sound waves that reach the reciever by diffraction over the near barrier, additional sound waves caused by complex pavement-barrier-ground reflection and diffraction mechanisms can reach the reciever, thus degrading the effectiveness of the near barrier. This paper presents the results of a first application of the Tilted Parallel Barrier Program (TPBP) to a highway project and attempts to verify aspects of the model through comparisons with data existing inthe literature. The model provides excellent agreement for the classical problem of an impedance boundary. It also meets reasonable expectations for parallel vertical, tilted parallel, and parallel absorptive barrier performance where a frequency dependent optimum design can be selected.
Title 24 - Housing and Urban Development - Noise
Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control
This document has been developed to continue the dialogue on the overall goals of the noise program, the role of the government, the role of consumers, and the role of industry in noise control, along with the selection of specific abatement and enforcement activities for EPA. It establishes a general framework for making decisions on the best strategy that EPA can employ to combat noise pollution. The primary goal of the Agency in the noise pollution area is to promote an environment for all Americans, free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare. In order to reach this legislatively mandated objective five specific operational goals have been formulated. These are: A. To take all practical steps to eliminate hearing loss resulting from noise exposure; B. To reduce environmental noise exposure to an Ldn value of no more than 75 dB immediately; C. To reduce noise exposure levels to Ldn 65 dB by vigorous regulatory and planning actions; D. To strive for an eventual reduction of noise levels to an Ldn of 55 dB; and E. To encourage and assist other Federal, State, and local agencies in the adoption and implementation of long range noise control policies.
Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control
This document has been developed to continue the dialogue on the overall goals of the noise program, the role of government, the role of consumers, and the role of industry in noise control, along with the selection of specific abatement and enforcement activities for EPA. It establishes a general framework for making decisions on the best strategy that EPA can employ to combat noise pollution. The primary goal of the Agency in the noise pollution area is to promote an environment for all Americans, free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare. In order to reach this legislatively mandated objective five specific operational goals have been formulated. These are: (A)To take all practical steps to eliminate hearing loss resulting from noise exposure; (B)To reduce environmental noise exposure to an Ldn value of no more than 75 dB immediately; (C)To reduce noise exposure levels to Ldn 65 dB by vigorous regulatory and planning actions; (D)To strive for an eventual reduction of noise levels to an Ldn of 55 dB; and (E)To encourage and assist other Federal, State and local agencies in the adoption and implementation of long range noise control policies.
Traffic Noise Analysis - An Intensive Seminar on State-of-the-Art Methods for Analyzing Traffic Noise and Preparing a Noise Study Report
Louis F. Cohn
The seminar will utilize the latest computer tools available anywhere for traffic noise studies, including several developed at Vanderbilt University. The Vanderbilt computer facilities will be used by the attendees in an interactive fashion, to provide hands on experience. Also, the controversial I-440 urban freeway, currently under construction in Nashville, will be the focus of several workshop and field sessions.
Traffic Safety '76 - A Digest of Activities of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The national traffic safety effort is based upon the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the Highway Safety Act of 1966. Each of these Acts requires that the Secretary of Transportation submit an annual report on the administration of the statute to the President for transmittal to Congress.
Training Manual for Mechanical Equipment Noise Control Permit Scheme for Model Building Code
Warren E. Blazier Jr.
This manual specifically deals with the acoustical impact of building mechanical equipment systems on the exterior environment surrounding a building site. It has been prepared as a training and implementation guide for building officials and engineers whose knowledge and training in acoustics may be limited.
The Transfer Function of Quarry Blast Noise and Vibration into Typical Residential Structures
George W. Kamperman; Mary A. Nicholson
An experimental program was conducted to determine the transfer function of quarry blast noise and vibration into typical structures. Four distinct noise and vibration signals are produced inside nearby dwellings. It was determined that due to resonances excited within the dwellings, the noise and vibration excitation was greater inside the dwellings than outside.
Transportation Noise - Federal Control and Abatement Responsibilities May Need to Be Revised
This report discusses transportation noise and the control and abatement activities of the Environmental Protection Agency currently and prior to eliminating its noise program in 1982. It also discusses the transportation noise control and abatement activities of the Department of Transportation and state and local agencies.
Transportation Noise and Noise From Equipment Powered by Internal Combustion Engines
The outdoor noise environment for man today is the summation of noise energy generated by all of the machines used to transport people and goods, machines used to make and build things or save human labor, machines used by the consumer for leisure activity, machines to make the other machines run, and people in their various activities. Development of this machinery has been fostered by growth in technology itself, as well as by pressures induced by changes in our lofestyle and by population growth. This report presents a detailed evaluation of noise of transportation vehicles including those used commercially, as well as many of the private and non-industrial devices powered by internal combustion engines.
Truck and Component Nois Levels - Final Report
Among the challenges of developing a quiet truck, the problems associated with location, identification, and measurement of component source levels are the most difficult. Various approaches have been utilized by truck and component manufacturers. Each approach is limited by either technical or cost constraints. Two major approaches have been investigated. These are: Coherence: Near and far-field microphones are used to compute the contribution of a source by subtracting the near-field levels from the far-field measurement. Selective Operation: This method requires the silencing of all major sources by lead wrapping and installation of super quiet mufflers and air induction systems. After baseline measurements are obtained, individual components are restored to the original configuration for measurement of the noise level of that component. A technical problem is associated with the coherence method. When the near-field microphone is placed near one component (i.e. muffler) other components (engine, fan, etc.) are nearby and can contribute to the near-field level. As a result the calculated component source level may be in error. The method of selective operation is, or course, time consuming and expensive because of the requirement to develop enclosures, mufflers, and air induction systems, and the need to conduct extensive before and after tests of each component. A new approach is discussed in this report. This approach utilizes: a.) a directive array of microphones for location and measurement sources; and, b.) near-field probes for the identification of the specific source. In particular the report contains a discussion of the directive array approach and the near-field probe approach. Section 2.0 provides a discussion of the test procedures for component source measurement. The measurement technique has been applied in a test of one truck in order to measure component noise levels as a function of speed and load. Section 3.0 provides a discussion of a test of a Ford heavy-duty tractor. The truck is a model CLT 9000, with a Cummins NTC 350 engine, dual STEMCO mufflers, a viscous fan clutch, and a 13-speed Road Ranger transmission. In addition, Section 3.0 provides a detailed description of the truck, dynamometer, test equipment, test methodology, and the test results. Section 4.0 provides the conclusions and recommendations.
Truck Manufacturing Industry Outlook
Truck Noise Degradation - Final Report
This report is the final submittal of data for a test program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and aimed at evaluating the potential degradation of medium and heavy truck noise emission levels over a vehicle's life. This test program was first described in detail in Interim Technical Report I, submitted to EPA by Wyle Research in November 1978 in support of a technology impact analysis for revision of the interstate motor carrier emission regulations. This document presents the results of measurements and analyses performed since the first report. A detailed description of the full test program and a summary of the complete data base is provided in this report, therefore no reference to the original report is necessary....
Truck Transport Refrigeration Units - Summary Report
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a review of the draft noise emission regulation planned for Truck Transport Refrigeration Units (TTRU's). This review was performed from the standpoint of the prevailing conditions of the national economy, the economic difficulties being experienced by the truck and TTRU industries, the President's policy to reduce the burdens of Federal regulations, and the changes in the Agency's regulatory priorities due to national need and budgetary constraints.
True-Integrating Environmental Noise Monitor and Sound Exposure Level Meter - Volume II: Wiring and Parts Lists, Parts Layouts, and Schematics
A.J. Averbuch; P.D. Schomer; M.W. Weisberg
This report provides the complete hardware construction of the CERL environmental noise monitor. Included are: (1) a task block diagram of the unit, (2) a parts list and diagram of the front panel, (3) a parts list and diagram of the power supply circuit, (4) a list of the back plane wiring, (5) parts list, layout, and scematics of the PC boards, and (6) wiring list for cables and connectors.