1. United States Public Law 92-574, "Noise Control Act of 1972," (October 27, 1972).

2. United States Public Law 95-609, "Quiet Communities Act of 1978," (January 19, 1978).

3. Bachmann, W., "Health and Disease. Critical Thoughts on the Health Concept of the World Health Organization," Munchen Med. Wochenschr, Vol. 119, (May 18, 1977), p. 349.

4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "The Status of Noise Control in The United States: State and Local Governments," (prepared by Dr. Clifford R. Bragdon, Dept. of City Planning, Georgia Institute of Technology), (April 1978).

5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety," 550/9-74-004, (March 1974).

6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Protective Noise Levels (condensed version of EPA Levels Document)," 550/9-79-100, (November 1978).

7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, Noise in America, Washington, D.C., Report No. 3318R.

8. Schori, T. R., "A Real World Assessment of Noise Exposure," EPA-AMRL Report TR-77-96, (August 1978).

9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control, (April 1977).

10. Federal Register, Vol. 42, No. 23, (February 3, 1977), pp. 6722-6723.

11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Effects of Noise on People," NTID 300.7, NTIS Document No. PB-206723, (December 1971).

12. Davis, H., and Silverman, S. R., Hearing and Deafness, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, (1966).

13. Newby, H. A., Audiology, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., (1972).

14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise, 550/4-73-002, (July 27, 1973).

15. Royster, L. H., "Potential Hearing Compensation Cost, Percent of the Population Exceeding Different Frequency Low Fence Hearing Threshold Level Combinations and Equivalent Frequency Low Fence Combinations for Black and White, Male and Female Population," paper presented before the Acoustical Society of America, (May 1978).

16. Martin, F., Introduction to Audiology, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., (1975).

17. Taylor, W., et al., "Study of Noise and Hearing in Jute Weaving," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 38.

18. Henderson, D., ed., et al., Effects of Noise on Hearing, New York: Raven Press, (1976).

19. Schein, J. D., and Deck, M. T., The Deaf Population of the United States, published by the National Association of the Deaf in cooperation with Deafness Research and Training Center, New York University, (1974).

20. Kryter, K., The Effects of Noise on Man, New York: Academic Press, (1971).

21. Hamernik, R. P., et al., "Impulse Noise and Synergistic Effects Aggravate Hearing Loss," Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, (January/February 1978), pp. 21-27.

22. Hodge, D. C., and Price, G. R., "Hearing Damage Risk Criteria," Noise and Audiology, ed. D. M. Lipseomb, Baltimore: University Park Press, (1978), pp. 167-191.

23. Cuniff, P. F., Environmental Noise Pollution, New York: John Wiley and Sons, (1977).

24. Ward, W. D., et al., "Temporary Threshold Shift Produced by Intermittent Exposure to Noise," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 31, No. 6, (1959), pp. 791-799.

25. Federal Register, Vol. 38, No. 105, (May 21, 1971), p. 10158.

26. Spoor, A., "Presbycusis Values in Relation to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss," International Audiology, Vol. 6, No. 1, (July 1967), pp. 48-57.

27. Cohen, A., Anticaglia, J., and Jones, H. H., "'Sociocusis'- Hearing Loss From Non-Occupational Noise Exposure," Sound and Vibration, (November 1970), pp. 12-20.

28. Rosen, S., "Presbycusis Study of a Relatively Noise-Free Population in the Sudan," Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, (1987), pp. 727-743.

29. Rintleman, W., and Bienvenue, G., "Rock Music and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: A Review of Research," presented during A Symposium on Rock Music and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss at the 55th Audio Engineering Society Convention, (October 29-November 1, 1976).

30. Whittle, L. S., and Robinson, D. W., "Discoteque and Pop Music as a Source of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, a Review and Bibliography," National Physical Laboratory, NPL Acoustics Report AC66, (March 1974).


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31. Miller, J.P., "The Effect of Noise on People," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 56, No. 3. (September 1, 1974), pp. 729-764.

32. Mills, J. H., "Noise and Children - A Review of Literature," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 58, No. 4., (October 1975), pp. 767-779.

33. Cohen, A., "Effects of Noise on Psychological State," ASHA Proceedings, (1969), pp. 74-88.

34. Suter, A., and Von Gierke, H. E., ''Evaluation and Compensation of Occupational Hearing Loss in the United States," presented at the Conference of the World Health Organization, Turin, Italy, (June 9, 1975).

35. American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Committee on Conservation of Hearing, "Guide for the Classification and Evaluation of Hearing Handicap." Trans. American Academy of Ophthalmology Otolaryngology, 69, (1965), pp. 740-751.

36. AAOO, "Guide for Evaluation of Hearing Handicap," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 41, No. 19, (1979), pp. 2055-2059.

37. "Criteria for a Recommended Standard Occupational Exposure to Noise," Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, HSM 73-11001, (1972).

38. Ginnold, R., "Occupational Hearing Loss: Workers Compensation in State and Federal Programs," EPA 550/9-79-101, (1979).

39. U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Annual Housing Survey: 1975, Part B, Indicators of Housing and Neighborhood Quality," Series H-150-75B, (1977).

40. Ando, Y., and Hattori, H., "Statistical Studies on the Effects of Intense Noise During Human Fetal Life," Journal of Sound and Vibration, (1973), pp. 101-110.

41. Selye, H., The Stress of Life, New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., (1956).

42. Peterson, E. A., et al., ''Noise and Cardiovascular Function in Rhesus Monkeys," Journal of Auditory Research, No. 15, (1975), pp. 234-251.

43. Jonsson, A., and Hansson, L., "Prolonged Exposure to a Stressful Stimulus as a Cause of Raised Blood Pressure in Man," The Lancet, (January 1977), pp. 86-87.

44. Frerichs, R. R., Beeman, B. L., Coulson, A. H. "Los Angeles Airport Noise and Mortality Faulty Analysis and Public Policy," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 70, No. 4, (April 1980) pp. 357-361.

45. Geber, W., "Cardiovascular and Teratogenic Effects of Chronic Intermittent Noise Stress," ed. Welch, B. L. and Welch, A. S., Physiological Effects of Noise, (1970), pp. 85-90.

46. Edmonds, L., Layde, P. M., and Erikson J. P., "Airport Noise and Teratogenesis," Archives of Environmental Health, (July-August 1979) pp. 243-247.

47. Tobias, J. V., and Irons, F. M., "Reception of Distorted Speech," in Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May 13-18, 1973. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 550/9-73-008, (1973), pp. 43-56.

48. Suter, A. H., "The Ability of Mildly Hearing-Impaired Individuals to Discriminate Speech in Noise," Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, (January 1978).

49. Durrant, J. D., "Anatomic and Physiologic Correlates of the Effects of Noise on Hearing," in Noise and Audiology, ed. D. M. Lipscomb, Baltimore: University Park Press, (1978), pp. 109-141.

50. Webster, J. C., "The Effects of Noise on the Hearing of Speech," in Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May 13-18, 1973. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 550/9-73-008, (1973), pp. 25-42.

51. Carpenter, A., "Effects of Noise on Performance and Productivity,'' in Control of Noise, Symposium No. 12, (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1962).

52. Harris, C. S., "The Effects of Different Types of Acoustic Stimulation on Performance, ''in Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Dubrovnik, Yuguslavia, May 13-18, 1973. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1973) 550/9-73-008, pp. 389-407.

53. Gulian, E., "Noise as an Occupational Hazard: Effects on Performance Level and Health - A Survey of Findings in the European Literature," (May 20, 1974).

54. Broadbent, D. E., "Effects of Noises of High and Low Frequency on Behavior," Ergonomics, Vol. 9-10, (1957), pp. 21-29.

55. Buggs, D. H., and Simon, J. R., "Differential Effects of Noise on Tasks of Varying Complexity,'' Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 52, (1968), pp. 148-153.


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56. Glass, D. C., and Singer, J. E., Urban Stress Experiments on Noise and Social Stressors New York: Academic Press, (1972).

57. Wilkinson, R. T., "Some Factors Influencing the Effects of Environmental Stressors Upon Performance," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 72, (1969), pp. 260-272.

58. Blake, M. J. F., "Temperament and Time of Day.,'' in Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, W. P. Colquhoun (ed.) London: Academic Press, (1971), pp. 109-148.

59. Davies, D. R., and Hockey, G. R. J., "The Effects of Noise and Doubling the Signal Frequency on Individual Differences in Visual Vigilance Performance,'' British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 57, (1966), pp. 381-389.

60. Discipio, W. J., "Psychomotor Perfomance as a Function of White Noise and Personality Variables," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 33, (1971), p. 82.

61. Broadbent, D. F., Decision and Stress, London: Academic Press, (1971).

62. Kahneman, D., Attention and Effort, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, (1973).

63. "Industrial Noise and Worker Medical, Attendance and Accident Records,'' U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health service, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, ( June 1972).

64. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, "Some Considerations in Choosing an Occupational Noise Exposure Regulation,'' (February 1976).

65. Bronzaft, A., McCarthy, D., "The Effect of Elevated Train Noise on Reading Ability," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 4, (December 1975), pp. 517-527.

66. Cohen, S., Glass, D., and Singer, J., "Apartment Noise, Auditory Discrimination, and Reading Ability in Children," Journal of Experimental Social Phychology, Vol. 9, (1973), pp. 407-422.

67. Griefahn, B., and Muzet, A., "Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbances and Their Effects on Health," Institut Feur Arbeits -und Sozialmedizin, Universitaet Mainz, West Germany and Centre d'Etudes Bioclimatiques du CNRS, France.

68. Lukas, J. S., "Measures of Noise Leval: Their Relative Accuracy in Predicting Objective and Subjective Responses to Noise During Sleep," Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 600/1-77-010, (February 1977).

69. Lukas, J. S., Dobbs, M. E., "Effects of Aircraft Noise on the Sleep of women.'' National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Report No. CR 2041.

70. Dobbs, M. E., "Behavioral Responses to Auditory Stimulation During Sleep,'' Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 20, (1972), pp. 467-476.

71. Williams, H. L. and Williams, C. L., "Nocturnal EEG Profiles and Performance.'' Psycho-physiol, Vol. 3, (1966), pp. 164-175.

72. Grandjean, E. et al., "A Survey on Aircraft Noise in Switzerland,'' in Proceding of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, 550/973-008 (1973), pp. 615-660.

73. Scharf, B., et. al., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ''Comparison of Various Methods for Predicting the Loudness and Acceptability of Noise," 550/9-77-101, (August 1977).

74. National Academy of Science - National Regulatory Commission, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics, ''Proposed Damage - Risk Criterion for Impulse Noise (gun fire),'' Report of Working Group 57, Washington, D.C. (1968).

75. McLean, E. K., and Tarnopolsky, A., "Noise, Discomfort, and Mental Health,''Psychological Medicine, (August 1977), pp. 19-61.

76. Borksy, P., "Review of Community Response to Noise,'' contained in proceedings of 3rd International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Hazard, American Speech Language Hearing Assoc., Report 10, (1980), pp. 452-474.

77. Matthews, K. E., and Cannon, L. K., ''Environmental Noise Level as a Determinant of Helping Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1975), pp. 571-577.

78. Sherrod, D. R., and Downs, R., "Environmental Determinants of Altruism: the Effect of Stimulus Overload and Perceived Control on Helping,'' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 10, (1974), pp. 468-479.

79. Geen, R. G., and Powers, P. C., "Shock and Noise as Instigating Stimuli in Human Aggression," Psychological Reports, Vol. 28, (1971), pp. 983-985.

80. Schultz, T. J., ''Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance,'' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 64, No. 2, (August 1978), pp. 377-405.

81. Committee on Hearing, Biuacoustics, and Biomechanics, ''Guidelines for Preparing Environmental Impact Statements of Noise," Report of Working Group No. 69, National Academy of Sciences, (1977).


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82. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "The Urban Noise Survey," 550/9-77-100, (April 1977).

83. Goldstein, J., "Assessing the Impact of Transportation Noise: Human Response Measures," in Proceedings of the 1977 National Conference on Noise Control Engineering, (ed.), G. C. Maling, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, (October 1977), pp. 79-98.

84. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, "Fifth Report of the Director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, " DHEW Publication No. NIH-78-1415, ( February 1978).

85. Jones, F. N., and Tauscher, J., "Residence Under an Airport Landing Pattern as a factor in Teratism," Archives of Environmental Health, (January-February 1978), pp. 10-11.

86. Cohen, Alexander, "Industrial Noise and Medical, Absence, and Accident Record Data on Exposed Workers, " in Proceedings of the International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May13-18, 1973, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 550/9-73-008, (1973), pp. 441-453.

87. Webster, J. C., "Effects of Noise on Speech Intelligibility," in Proceedings of the Conference on Noise As a Public Health Hazard, (1969), pp. 49-73.

88. Lukas, J. "Noise and Sleep: A Literature Review and a Proposed Criteria for Assessing Effect," in Handbook of Noise Assessment, ed. Darly N. May, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company: New York, (1978), pp. 313-334.

89. Thiessen, G. J., "Effects of Noise from Passing Trucks on Sleep, " Report Q1, presented at 77th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Philadelphia, (April 1969).

90. Abey-Wickrama, I., a'Brook, M. F., Gattoni, F. E. G., & Herridge, C. F. "Mental Hospital Admissions and Aircraft Noise," Lancet, (1969), pp. 1275-1277.

91. ANSI, American National Standards Institute, "Methods for the calculation of the Articulation Index" ANSI S3.5-1969.

92. ANSI, American National Standards Institute, "Rating Noise with Respect to Speech Interference" ANSI S3.14-1977.

93. Horonjeff, R. D., and Teffeteller, S. R., "Sleep Interference from Intermittent and Continuous Noise Exposure," presented at the 98th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah (November 27, 1969).

94. Horonjeff, R. D., et al., "Sleep Interference from Low Level Sounds," presented at the 96th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Honolulu, Hawaii (November 30, 1978).

95. Royster, L. H., J. D. Royster, and W. G. Thomas, "Representative Hearing Levels by Race and Sex in North Carolina Industry, " Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 68, No. 2, (August 1980).

96. Cohen, S., Krantz, D. S., Evans, G. W. and D. Stokols, "Community Nuise and Children: Cognitive Motivational and Physiological Effects." In Tobias, J. V., Jansen, G., and Ward, W. D. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, ASHA Report 10, (April 1980).

97. Meecham, W. C., Shaw, N. "Effects of Jet Noise on Mortality Rates," British Journal of Audiology, Vol. 13, (1979), pp. 77-80.

98. Kryter, K. D., Pazo, F. "Effects of Noise on Some Autonomic System Activities," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 67, (1980), pp. 2036-2044.

99. Dept. of Labor, OSHA. "Occupational Noise Exposure; Hearing Conservation Amendment," Jan. 16, 1981.

100. Welch, B. L. Extra-auditory Health Effects of Industrial Noise: Survey of Foreign Literature, June 1979.

101. Knipschild, P. "Medical Effects of Aircraft Noise: Drug Survey" Int. Arch. Occup. Envir. Health Vol. 40 (1977).

102. Cantrell, R. W. "Prolonged Exposure to Intermittent Noise: Audiometric, Biochemical, Motor, Psychological, and Sleep Effects" Laryngoscope Supplement I vol. 84, No. 10, p. 2, (October 1974).

103. Ising, M., et al. "Study on the Quantification of Risk for the Heart and Circulatory System Associated with Noise Workers." Institute for Water and Air Hygiene of the BGA, Berlin (1979).

104. Karsdorf, G. and Klappach, H. "The Influence of Traffic Noise on the Health and Performance of Secondary School Students in a Large City." Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene, (1968).

105. Manninen, O. and Aro S. "Noise-induced Hearing Loss and Blood Pressure." Int'l Archives of Occup. and Envir. Health, Vol. 42, (1979).

106. Peterson, E. et al. "Noise Raises Blood Pressure Without Impairing Auditory Sensitivity" Science, Vol. 211, No. 4489, (March 27, 1981).


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AAOO (American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology)

Hearing impairment compensation formula, 2-23

ABC Network

Harris survey, 1-1

AMA (American Medical Association)

Hearing impairment compensation formula, 2-23

Absenteeism - see Workplace

Accidents - see Safety

Acoustic Reflex

Defined, 2-8


Part of stress syndrome, 3-1


On performance, 5-2, 5-3


Hearing differences, 2-3
Effect on hearing loss, 2-11 to 2-12

Air Conduction

Testing, 2-3, 2-4

Aircraft Noise

As source of neighborhood dissatisfaction, 1-1
Population exposed to, 1-1 to 1-3
Relation to cardiovascular problems, 3-3, 3-4
Possible fetal effects, 3-7
Relation to mental illness, 7-1
Relation to mortality rates, 3-6

Airport Noise - see Aircraft Noise


Neighborhood dissatisfaction, 1-1, 8-1
Population annoyed, 1-1 to 1-2
Population severely annoyed, 1-1
As a function of Ldn, 10-1
Survey results, 8-1, 8-2 to 8-6
Effects of noise quality, 7-3
Means, 8-1
Predictors, 8-2, 8-4 to 8-6
Relation to socioeconomic status, 8-6
As psychological response, 7-4
From sleep disturbance, 6-1, 6-4
Schultz curve, 8-3, 8-4
Special populations, 7-3
As index of community reaction, 8-3



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Annual Housing Survey

Findings, 1-1, 8-1

Antisocial Behavior

As stress effect, 7-4

Arousal Response - see also Startle Reflex

Defined, 3-1

Articulation index - see Communication Interference

Attitudes - see also Annual Housing Survey Urban Noise

As a function of Ldn, 10-1 to 10-6

Audiogram - see also Hearing, Measurement

Sample, 2-4
OSHA requirements, 2-20 to 2-22
Types of uses, 2-22 to 2-23

Audiometry - see Audiogram Hearing Measurements

Auricle - see Ear Function

Automobile Noise - see Traffic Noise

Autonomic Nervous System

In physiological response, 5-2

Awakening - see Sleep Disturbance

Babies - see Fetus

Balance - see Vertigo

Benefits - see also Compensation

Of regulations, 9-1 to 9-2

Birth Defects

Possible link with noise, 3-1, 3-7
Effect on hearing, 2-5

Birth Weights

Low birth weights, 3-1, 3-7

Budgets - see Costs

Blood Pressure

Arousal response, 3-1
Vasoconstriction, 3-2
Hypertension, 3-1 to 3-5
In laboratory animals, 3-4
Pressure changes as stress effect, 3-3

Bone Conduction

Thresholds, 2-3
Testing, 2-5


Guidelines, 2-10 to 2-11, 8-3

Cardiovascular Disease

As stress effect, 3-1
Relationship to noise, 3-3 to 3-5


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Car Noise - see Traffic Noise

Census Bureau - see Annual Housing Survey

Center for Disease Control

Fetal birth weight studies, 3-7


With hearing loss, 2-6
Effects during sleep, 6-4
Physiological stress effects on, 3-4
Performance interference, 5-4


Relation to noise, 3-3

City Noise - see Urban Noise

Cleft Palates - see Birth Defects

Cochlea - see Ear Function

Colitis - see also Digestive Disorders

As stress effect, 3-1, 3-5

Communication Interference

In general, Chapter 4
As a function of Ldn, 10-1
Resulting from hearing loss, 2-15 to 2-16
Indirect effects, 4-1
Effects on social interaction, 4-1
Effects on safety, 4-1
Effect of speech quality, 4-1
Factors of extent, 4-1
Criteria, 4-3 to 4-5
Articulation index, 4-2
Effects of temporal quality, 4-1 to 4-2
Speech interference level, 4-2
Best weighting scale, 4-2
Protective levels, 4-2 to 4-3
Intelligibility, 4-2
Relating to community response, 8-1
Effects on children, 4-5 to 4-6
Effect of age, 4-5
From hearing loss, 4-5

Community Response

In general, Chapter 8
As a function of Ldn, 10-1 to 10-6, 9-1
Relating to activity interference, 8-1, 8-5
Neighborhood dissatisfaction, 1-1, 8-1, 8-6
Number of people at various exposure levels, 1-2 to 1-3
Opposed to individual response, 8-2
Synthesized data, 8-3 to 8-5
Relation to complaints, 8-3, 8-5 to 8-6
Comparison of Levels Document and prior survey data, 8-3 to 8-4


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Community Response (Continued)

Relation to population density, 8-5 to 8-6
Relation to contextual factors, 8-5 to 8-6
Index of annoyance, 8-2
Socioeconomic factors, 8-6
How measured, 8-1
Criteria, 8-3 to 8-5


Hearing impairment formulas, 2-23 to 2-24
State policies, 2-23 to 2-24
Why paid, 2-23
Use of audiograms, 2-22 to 2-23
Legal terms, 2-23

Compensation Formulas - see NIOSH

Complaints - see also Community Response

At various noise levels, 8-2 to 8-5
Predictive value, 8-4

Conductive Hearing Loss

Defined, 2-4
How determined, 2-5
Causes, 2-5

Congenital Problems - see Birth Defects, Fetus

Contextual Factors - see also Psychological Response

Relation to community reaction, 8-6


Effect on response, 5-2

Coping Behavior

From excessive exposure, 7-4

Coronary Disease - see Cardiovascular Disease


Increases in levels associated with noise, 3-4


Of cardiovascular disease, 3-3
Of work disruption, 5-4


For nonauditory effects, 3-3
Hearing loss, 2-16 to 2-19
Speech interference, 4-3 to 4-5
Sleep disruption, 6-2 to 6-4
Steady state noise, 2-19
For impulse noise, 2-10
Summary tables, as a function of Ldn, 10-1 to 10-5


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Daily Noise Exposure

Hypothetical, 1-3 to 1-4

Digestive Disorders - see also specific type

From noise-induced stress, 3-1 to 3-2, 3-5


Defined for compensation, 2-23

Drugs - see Toxic Substances

Ear Function

Description, 2-1
Testing, 2-3 to 2-5
Disruptive diseases, 2-5
Organ of Corti, 2-9

EEC Changes

Noise-related, 6-2


With hearing loss, 2-6
Effects during sleep, 6-4
Presbycusis, 2-11 to 2-12

Endocrine Disorders

As stress effect, 3-5

Education - see Learning

Equal Energy Hypothesis

Defined, 2-10
Accuracy, 2-17

Equal Loudness Contour

Displayed, 7-3

Equal Temporary Effect Hypothesis

Defined, 2-9

Equivalent Noise Impact (ENI) - Level-Weighted Population (LWP)

Exposure (to Noise) - see also Residential Exposure, Occupational Noise, Urban Noise

Long-term nonauditory effects, 3-2
Short-term nonauditory effects, 3-2


As stress effect, 3-5, 7-1
From high-intensity noise, 5-2
From sleep disruption, 6-1


Hearing damage, 2-5
Physiological effects, 3-1, 3-7

"Fight or Flight Syndrome" - see Arousal Response

Gallup Poll

Results, 1-1


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Gastrointestinal Problems - see Digestive Disorders

Harris Survey

Results, 1-1


Defined for compensation, 2-23


Noise related, 3-5

Hearing Conservation - see also Hearing Loss, Hearing Protectors, Audiograms

Methods, 2-24 to 2-28

Hearing Loss - see also Hearing Loss, Types

In general, Chapter 2
Population at risk, 1-3
Measurement of, 2-5
Relation to exposure, 2-7
Physiological basis, 2-8
Effects, 2-15 to 2-16
Compensation formulas, 2-23 to 2-24
Causes, 2-5
Susceptibility, 2-7, 2-8
From rock music, 2-14
Protective levels, 2-16
Protective measures, 2-19 to 2-23
Due to aging, 2-12 to 2-13
Compensation, 2-23 to 2-24

Hearing Loss Claims - see Compensation

Hearing Loss, Types - see specific type:


Hearing Mechanism - see Ear Function

Hearing, Measurement - see also Audiogram

Method, 2-3 to 2-4, 2-22 to 2-23
Of hearing loss, 2-5

Hearing, Normal

Based on sex, 2-2
Based on race, 2-3
Based on age, 2-3
Range, 2-2

Hearing Protectors

Types, 2-22
Attenuation characteristics, 2-20

Hearing Tests - see Hearing, Measurement


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Heart Problems - see Cardiovascular Disease

Helping Behavior

Effects from excessive exposure, 7-4

High Frequency Noise

Effects on performance, 5-1
Effects on subjective response, 7-2

Household Noise

Typical exposure, 1-3


Annual Housing Surveys, 1-1


As a stress effect, 3-1 to 3-5
Monkeys, 3-4


As a stress effect, 3-5

Immunological Resistance

Reduction from stress, 3-1


Defined for compensation, 2-23


Function, 2-1

Impulse Noise

Effects, 2-10
Effect on speech interference, 4-2
Criteria, 2-10 to 2-11

Individual Response - see Psychological Response

Indoor Noise

Compared to outdoor levels, 1-3
Criteria, 4-3 to 4-4

Industrial Noise - see Occupational Noise

Infants - see Fetus

Information Content

Effect on sleep disturbance, 6-4
Effect on work performance, 5-2 to 5-3

Information Gathering - see Learning, Communication Interference, Performance Interference


Noise related, 3-2

Interior Noise

Relation to outdoor noise, 1-2

Intensity -- see also Loudness

Relation to subjective response, 7-1


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Effect on performance, 5-1
Effect on speech interference, 4-2
Effect on subjective response, 7-1
Correction factor, 2-17


As stress effect, 2-4, 7-1
In noisy work environments, 5-3

Kryter, Karl

Studies, 3-6


Effects from speech interference, 4-5 to 4-6
Disruption, 5-2, 5-4

Legislation - see Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act OSHA

Levels - see Recommended Levels

Level-Weighted Population

Defined, 9-1 to 9-2


Effect on performance, 5-1
Effect on sleep, 6-1 to 6-4
Effect on threshold shift, 2-7
Of rock music, 2-14
Effect on subjective response, 7-2, 7-4
Effect from recruitment, 2-15
Effect on communication, 4-1

Masking - see Communication Interference

Mental Effects - see Psychological Effects, Phychological Response

Mecham, W. C.


Mental Illness

Relation to excessive noise, 7-1

Metabolic Disorders - see Physiological Effects

Migraines - See Headaches

Modifications - see Strategies, Control


Blood pressure study, 3-4

Mortality Rates

Effects from noise, 3-6

NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health)

Hearing impairment compensation formulas, 2-24
Hearing loss formula, 2-24


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National Health Examination Survey

Of tinnitus, 2-15

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health - see NIOSH

National League of Cities

Gallup poll, 1-1

National Noise Problem

In general, Chapter 1
People exposed, 1-1 to 1-3
Typical exposures, 1-3 to 1-4
Workers, exposed, 1-3


From high-intensity noise, 5-2

Neighborhoods - see also Annoyance, Urban Noise, Annual Housing Survey

Community response surveys, 1-1, 8-1 to 8-6
Dissatisfaction, 9-1
Satisfaction as a function of Ldn, 10-1 to 10-6


As stress effect, 3-5

Newborn - see Fetus

Nonauditory Effects - see also Stress Physiological Effects

In general, Chapter 3
Physiological changes, 3-1
Vasoconstriction, 3-2
From short-term exposure, 3-2
From long-term exposure, 3-2
Criteria, 3-3
Cardiovascular problems, 3-1, 3-3 to 3-5
Blood pressure, 3-1, 3-3 to 3-5
Stress effects, 3-3 to 3-5
Toxic substances, 3-1, 3-6
Fetus, 3-1, 3-7
During sleep, 6-1
On workers, 3-6
Differences in scientific opinion, 3-6


Requirements, 2-10, 2-21 to 2-22

Occupational Safety and Health Administration - see OSHA

Occupational Noise

Compensation for hearing impairment, 2-23 to 2-24
Number of workers at risk, 1-3
Regulations, 2-10, 2-19
OSHA requirements, 2-21 to 2-22
Protective levels, 2-10, 2-16, 2-20
Impulsive noise, 2-10


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Occupational Noise (Continued)

Performance effects, 5-3
Societal costs, 5-4

Old People - see Elderly

Ossicular Chain - see Ear Function

Ototoxic Drugs - see Toxic Substances

Performance Interference

In general, Chapter 5
Exposure factors, 5-1
Exposure effects, 5-1 to 5-4
Detrimental levels, 5-1
Detrimental noise qualities, 5-1 to 5-2
Cumulative effects, 5-3
From industrial noise, 5-3
Aftereffects, 5-2
Societal costs, 5-4
Fatigue from noise related stress, 5-5, 7-1
Affected tasks, 5-2
Individual variables, 5-3
Of learning, 5-2
Positive effects, 5-1, 5-3
On children, 5-4

Personal Factors

In subjective response, 7-1, 7-4
In community response, 8-5 to 8-6

Peterson, Ernest

Blood pressure, 3-4


Defined, 7-2

Physiological Effects - see also Nonauditory Effects

Arousal response, 3-1
Of high-intensity noise, 5-2
During sleep, 6-1 to 6-2
Autonomic nervous system, 3-2

Population Density

As predictor of annoyance, 8-5 to 8-6


Effect on performance, 5-1

Pregnant Women - see Fetus


Defined, 2-11
Progression, 2-11 to 2-13

Primates - see Monkeys


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Psychological Effects

From industrial noise, 5-1 to 5-2
From high levels of noise, 7-1

Psychological Response

In general, Chapter 7
To high-intensity noise, 5-2
To excessive noise, 7-1
Subjective response to noise quality, 7-1
Contextual factors, 7-1
Personal factors, 7-1
Best weighting scale, 7-2
Annoying noises, 7-3
Of special populations, 7-4
Role of personality, 7-4
Coping behavior, 7-4
Antisocial behavior, 7-4
Use of sones, 7-2
Use of phons, 7-2

Public Health Survey

On hearing loss, 2-6

Public Opinion - see Annual Housing Survey, Community Response, Surveys, Urban Noise


Hearing differences, 2-3

Rapid Eye Movement (REM)

Disruption, 6-4

Recommended Levels

Levels Document identified levels, 2-19
Validity of basis, 2-17
Appropriate for speech, 4-2 to 4-3


Defined, 2-15


Occupational noise, 2-10, 2-19, 2-20 to 2-21
Health and Welfare analysis, 9-1 to 9-2

REM - see Rapid Eye Movement

Residential Exposure - see also Household Noise

Survey results, 1-1 to 1-3
Near airports, 7-1
In urban areas, 8-1 to 8-6

Rock Music

Effects, 2-14
Levels, 2-14


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Field study, 3-6
Effects from communication interference, 6-1
Effects from stress, 7-4

Schools - see Learning

Schultz Curve

Displayed, 8-4

Senior Citizens - see Elderly

Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss

Defined, 2-4
Causes, 2-5


Hearing differences, 2-2
Effect on sleep disruption, 6-4

Shaw, W.

Studies, 3-6

Sleep Disturbance

In general, Chapter 6
Effects, 6-1
Awareness, 6-1
Indirect effects, 6-1
Disruptive noise levels, 6-1
Physiological effects, 6-2
Probability of disruption, 6-2
Variance with noise level, 6-3 to 6-4
Probability of awakening, 6-3
Effects of sound quality, 6-1, 6-4
Effects of age and sex, 6-4
Effects of sleep duration, 6-4
Effects of noise duration, 6-1
Effects of sleep deprivation, 6-4
Effects of time of night, 6-2
Survey data, 6-4
Stages of sleep, 6-2
Long-term effects, 6-4
Relating to community response, 8-1
Criteria, 6-2 to 6-4

Social Interaction

Effects from communication interference, 4-1
Effects from excessive exposure, 7-4
Effects from hearing loss, 2-15 to 2-16


Defined, 2-11
Evidence of occurrence, 2-13


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Socioeconomic Status

Effect on psychological response, 7-1
Relation to annoyance, 8-6


Defined, 7-3

Special Populations - see also Fetus, Children, Age, Sex, Workers, Elderly

Noise sensitive, 7-3
Affected by masking, 4-5 to 4-6

Spectral Characteristics

Effect on subjective response, 7-1

Speech Interference - see Communication Interference

Standards - see Regulations

Startle Reflex - see Arousal Response


Residential exposure, 1-1 to 1-4, 8-5 to 8-6
Societal costs, 5-4
Hearing loss extent, 2-6

Strategies, Control

Noise reduction, 2-19 to 2-21
Source modification, 2-19
Path alteration, 2-20

Stress, Mental - see also Annoyance

From excessive noise, 3-4, 7-1

Stress, Physical

As noise effect, 3-1 to 3-7
From industrial noise, 5-3

Subjective Response - see Psychological Effects, Psychological Response

Surveys - see also Urban Noise, Annual Housing Survey

On sleep disruption, 6-4
On community response, 8-1 to 8-6
On subjective response, 7-4


To hearing loss, 2-7 to 2-8
Testing, 2-22
Of children, 5-4
To infection or toxic substances, 3-1


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with toxic substances, 2-8, 3-6

Tasks, Noise Sensitive

Types, 5-2

Terminology - see Acoustic Terminology


Defined, 2-15
Extent, 2-15

Threshold of Audibility

Normal hearing, 2-2

Threshold of Pain

Level, 2-2

Threshold Shifts, Noise Induced

Permanent, 2-6, 2-7, 2-18 to 2-19
Temporary, 2-9 to 2-10, 2-14
Predictions, 2-9 to 2-10
From loud music, 2-14
Steady-state exposure criterion, 2-19
Relation to exposure levels, 2-5
From continuous noise, 2-19

Toxic Substances

Hearing effects, 2-5, 2-8
Synergistic effects, 3-4
Susceptibility, 3-1

Traffic Noise - see also Specific Vehicle Types

As source of neighborhood dissatisfaction, 1-1 to 1-2
Population exposed to, 1-1 to 1-3
Relation to cardiovascular problems, 3-3 to 3-4

Traumatic Hearing Loss

Defined, 2-5

Typical Noise Exposures

In Schori study, 1-3
Hypothetical, 1-4

Ulcers - see also Digestive Disorders

As stress effect, 3-1, 3-5

Urban Noise

Sources, 1-1 to 1-4
Population exposed, 1-1 to 1-3
Survey results, 1-1, 8-5 to 8-6
Survey conclusions, 8-6

Urban Noise Survey - see Urban Noise

Undesirable Neighborhood Conditions

Noise, 1-1 to 1-2


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In startle (arousal response), 3-1
Of uterine blood vessels, 3-7
During sleep, 6-1
As stress effect, 3-2

Vehicle Noise - see Traffic Noise

Vestibular Problems - see Vertigo


From high-intensity noise, 5-2

Vigilance Tasks

Disruption factors, 4-1, 5-2

Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act

Permissible exposure levels, 2-20

Weighting Schemes

A-weighting, 4-2
For measuring subjective response, 7-2
Stevens' Mark VII and VIII, 7-2
Zwicker's procedures, 7-2

Womb - see Fetus

Workers - see Occupational Noise

Work Performance - see Performance Interference


Absenteeism, 3-6
Cost of exposure, 5-4


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